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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Effects of Reversible Inhibitors on Apparent Vmax and Apparent Km

Competitive inhibition

Uncompetitive inhibition

Mixed inhibition aka Noncompetitive inhibition

Trypsinogen is activated to trypsin via


Chymotrypsinogen is activated to chymotrypsin via


Chymotrypsin cleaves


Chymotrypsin catalysis requires

His57 to be unprotonated and Ile16 to be protonated

Ser195 is the key active-site Ser residue in chymotrypsin catalysis

Irreversible inhibition of chymotrypsin via



Lysozyme catalyzes

Beta (1->4) glycosidic bond cleavages via SN2

What is the representative monosaccharide in RNA and DNA

RNA (ribonucleic acid) - D-ribose

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - 2-deoxy-D-ribose


The interconversion of alpha and beta anomers.

At equilibrium, 1/3 is Alpha and 2/3 is Beta-D-glucose


5 membered sugar ring


6 membered sugar ring

Fehling's test for reducing sugars

Glucose and other reducing sugars capable of reducing cupric ion. 3Cu2+ ---> 3Cu+


Alpha-D-Glucose + Beta-D-Glucose

Glycogen or amylopectin branch points

Linear (a1-->4)Glc

Branch points at (a1-->6)Glc

Glycogen every 8-12 residues

Amylopectin every 24-30 residues

Amylose is linked by

(a1-->4)Glc linear

Cellulose is linked by


Chitin is linked by


It is a homopolymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units

Differs from cellulose at C2 which has an acylated amino group.

Starch is composed of

10-30% Amylose and 70-90% Amylopectin

Starch contains 2 types of Glc polymers

10-30% Amylose and 70-90% Amylopectin

Cellulase breaks what kinds of bonds?

(B1-->4) glycosidic bonds

Components of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

A common lipid A region

A core oligosaccharide known as endotoxin

An O-Specific Chain (main determinant of immunological activity)


Proteins that read sugar codes and mediate many biological responses


Plasma membrane lectins that mediate cell-cell adhesion

Ex: neutrophil adhering and rolling in blood vessel to site of inflammation

The packing of fatty acids into aggregates depends on

Degree of unsaturation (presence of cis double bonds)

Why are triacylglycerols aka triglycerides or fats a good source of energy?

TAGs is the most reduced form of carbon in nature. Oxidation of TAG gives twice the amount of energy, gram for gram, compared to the oxidation of carbohydrates.


A fatty acid joined to sphingosine in amide linkage

Glycosphingolipids are ceramides with one or more sugars

Human blood groups are determined in part by

Oligosaccharide head groups on glycosphingolipids

Bile acids

Polar derivatives of cholesterol that act as detergents in the intestines. They emulsify fats to make them accessible to digestive lipases.

Cholesterol is composed of

A hydrophilic OH head, four fused rings, and alkyl chain.

Steroids lack the alkyl chain on the D ring of cholesterol and are therefore more polar than cholesterol.

Phosphatidylserine PS

When PS is moved from the inner leaflet to outer leaflet in erythrocytes, blood clotting occurs

In all other cells, apoptosis occurs.

Phospholipase C

Extracellular enzyme that cleaves GPI links

Flippase, Floppase, Scramblase

Flippase (P-type ATPase) moves PE and PS from outer to inner leaflet using ATP.

Floppase (ABC transporter) moves phospholipids from inner to outer leaflet using ATP.

Scramblase moves lipids in either direction toward equilibrium. Does not require ATP, but uses Ca2+.

Lipid rafts are comprised of

A large amount of cholesterol, sphingolipids, and GPI-anchored proteins.