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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Algae is a generic term used to describe __________-like __________.


Algae Notes

-Some algae have animal-like characteristics

*motile reproductive spores

-Most algae have ability to photosynthesize

*Possible precursors to true plants

-Algae are...

1. Eukaryotic

2. Unicellular

3. Aggregate in filaments, colonies, or thalli

4. Almost all are photosynthetic (autotrophic)

-Environment algae live in:

*Primarily aquatic in oceans and fresh water

*Some are dormant land dwellers

-Algae groups are characterized by:

1. Pigments present

2. Cell wall chemistry

3. Food storage compounds

4. Presence/absence of flagella

Diatomaceous Earth (aka diatoms)

-Largest group of algae

-Important food source


1. Single-celled and motile

2. Primarily suspended in fresh or salt water as plankton

3. Cell walls are intricate lattice of organic matter and silicon dioxide

4. Usually produce asexually through mitosis

*Can produce eggs and sperm for sexual reproduction

-During lab:

*Barrel/football-shaped organisms

Green Algae

-Second largest group of algae

-Contains the pigment chlorophyll

-Two subgroups:

1. Chlorophytes

2. Charophytes


*Specific subgroup of green algae

*Closest living relatives to true plants

-Very diverse structural organization:

*Single-cells, filaments, colonies

*True multicellular forms with differentiated cell types that resemble simple plants (usually grouped with seaweeds)

*Land and aquatic (components of plankton)

Brown algae are brown or olive in color due to the __________ pigment __________.


Red algae appear reddish in color due to the pigment __________.


Note: Depending on the concentration of pigment and depth of environment, red algae can look black (deep water) or greenish (shallow water).

Brown/Red Algae Characteristics

-All brown algae and most red algae are multicellular

-The largest and most complex are an informal group called "seaweeds"

-Seaweed anatomy

1. Holdfast

2. Stipe

3. Blades

Human Uses of Algae


*Reflective paints


*Fine grinding machinery

-Red alga Porphyra and brown alga Laminaria

*Used in Japanese cuisine

-Gelatinous polymers in algal cell walls

(algin/alginates in brown algae and agar/carrageenan in red algae)

*Thickening agents


>>Gushers and chocolate milk contain carrageenan and agar-agar


-Kingdom in Domain Bacteria

-Once regarded as algae because they have the ability to photosynthesize


-Generally found in oceans, marshes, and mud flats

-Nonmotile with filamentous (thread-like) form

-Reproduction is asexual only

-Gave rise to chloroplasts

Quick Taxonomy Reference...

Domain Bacteria:


Domain Eukarya:


-Green Algae

-Red Algae

-Brown Algae


-Historically classified as plants because they have cell walls

-However... they lack photosynthetic pigments and are heterotrophic

*Feeding on organic matter that originated from other organisms

-Kingdom in Domain Eukarya

-Primarily decomposers of organic matter

*Parasitic: Feeding on living organic matter

*Saprobic: Feeding on dead organic matter

How Fungi Play a Role for Humanity

-Provide antibiotics

*Ex: Penicillin

-Provide food products



-Wine and beer are products of fungal action

Structure of Fungi

1. Hyphae

*Tubular, thread-like filaments

2. Mycelium

*A mass of hyphae

3. Fruiting body

*Reproductive structure which bears sexually produced spores

4. Spores

*Thick-walled haploid cells used for dispersal

5. Sporangium

*Spore-holder, where the production of spores takes place

Phylum Zygomycota (Fungi)

-Zygomycetes spend much of their life cycle in a haploid, asexual stage

*Sporangia produced on erect hyphae and make haploid spores through mitosis

-Ex: Black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer)

-Rhizopus lab observations:

*The round structures on stalks were clusters of asexual sporangia

*At base of the stalks were root-like hyphae

>>Function: anchors fungus and obtains nutrients from the substrate it is growing on

*Remember: Sexual and asexual reproduction

Phylum Basidiomycota (Fungi)

-aka the "club" fungi

-Includes the common mushroom

-Conspicuous because of large fruiting bodies

-Asexual reproduction:

*Haploid spores produced through mitotic division at the tips of erect hyphae

-Sexual reproduction:

*Large fruiting body is called the basidiocarp

*Basidiocarp bear club-shaped cells which are called basidia

*On the surface of the basidia are sexually produced spores called basidiospores.

Phylum Ascomycota (Fungi)

-Largest group of fungi

-Most have a fruiting body that bears sexually produced spores in sacs called asci

-Meiosis occurs in the ascus, producing haploid ascospores

-Asexual reproduction similar to Basidiomycota

*Haploid spores produced through mitotic division at the tips of erect hyphae

-Ex: Powdery mildew, ergot, morels

Deuteromycetes (Fungi)

-aka the imperfect fungi

-Not a phylum, but an informal group

-These fungi do not have a sexual reproductive stage

-Possibly ascomycetes that have lost the ability to reproduce sexually

-Ex 1: Penicillium

*Often a blue-green mold seen on decaying fruits and other foods

*Source of first antibiotic, Penicillin

*Used to make several kinds of cheese

-Ex 2: Aspergillus

*Common household mold on fruits, veggies, and bathtubs


-Has a specific fungal component and a cyanobacteria/algal component

-The fungal component:

*Incapable of living on its own

*Exists only as part of the lichen

*Absorbs water and nutrient for both organisms and provides protection from the sun

-The algal/cyanobacteria component:

*Consists of one of many species that are commonly found as free-living organisms

*Photosynthesizes to provide food for both organisms

-Symbiotic and mutualistic relationship

-Three main lichen body types:


*Denser with black dots, bark-like and curled

2. Crustose

*Brown base w/ white and orange crust, flat

3. Fruticose

*Looks like tumbleweed, light yellow/tan, many gaps and thin