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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The largest organ of the body is the what?
What percentage of the body weight is skin?
What are the two layers of the skin?
The epidermis and dermis
The outer layer of the skin made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is called the what?
The deeper connective tissue layer of the skin is called what?
The epidermis and dermis rest on the what?
Hypodermis or subcutaneous layer
The normal thickness of the skin is what?
1-2 mm
What two things are absent in thick skin?
Hair follicles and sebaceous glands
Skin with no blood vessels, sparse nerve endings, 5 zones and keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is known as what?
About how long does it take for cells of the epidermis to migrate from the deepest layer to the top?
30-40 days
This is the deepest layer of the epidermis. It contains a single layer of cuboidal or low columnar cells sitting on basement membrane. It receives nutrients from the connective tissue beneath and contains 4 types of cells.
Stratum Basale
These cells of the stratum basale divide rapidly (mostly at night).
Stem cells
These cells of the stratum basale produce a tough fibrous protein.
Cells of the stratum basale that produce a protective pigment are called what?
____ is phagocytized by keratinocytes and used to shade their nuclei from UV radiation.
Melanin that is black/brown in color is called?
Melanin that is red/yellow in color is called?
Cells of the stratum basale that can sense touch and are attached to a nerve ending in the dermis are known as what?
Merkel or Tactile Cells
This is the second deepest layer of the epidermis and is superficial to the stratum basale. It is the thickest layer of the epidermis. It contains more living keratinocytes and contains dendritic Langerhans cells.
Stratum Spinosum
Cells in the stratum spinosum that alert the immune system to forein invaders are called what?
Dendritic or Langerhans cells
Dendritic (Langerhans) cells are modified ____ from bone marrow.
This layer of the epidermis contains 3-5 layers of granule and vesicle containing keratinocytes. It contains dying cells, it releases lipids from vesicles, contains granules lysing in order to create keratin and forms a protein-lipid.
Stratum Granulosum
Which layer of the skin functions in waterproofing the skin?
Stratum granulosum
This layer of the epidermis is thin, translucent and only found in thick skin. There are no nuclei or organelles and the cells are filled with eleidin.
Stratum Lucidum
Cells of the stratum lucidum contain cells that are filled with ____, an intermediate prodcut in keratin production.
This layer of the epidermis contains up to 30 sublayers. It has dead, scaly keratinized cells that exfoliate. It is resistant to abrasion, penetration and water loss.
Stratum corneum
What is the thickness of the dermis?
0.2 to 4 mm
This tissue is fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of collagen with some elastic/reticular fibers.
Is the dermis vascular or avascular?
This skin layer contains accessory structures such as hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, nail roots and nerve endings.
____ ____ are upward extensions of the dermis into the epidermis forming the ridges of the fingerprints.
Dermal papillae
The dermis contains smooth muscle responsible for allowing hair to stand up. What are these muscles called?
Piloerector muscles
The papillary layer of the dermis is ____ to the reticular layer of the dermis.
This dermal layer is loosely organized areolar tissue and allows for the motility of white blood cells.
Papillary layer
This dermal layer is the deepest 4/5 of the dermis. It contains dense irregular connective tissue, thick collagen and adipocytes.
Reticular layer
Superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue is more commonly known as what?
This component of the integumentary system binds skin to underlying tissue, contains more adipose than the dermis, functions as an energy resevoir and thermal insulator and is 8% thicker in women.
Why are hypodermic injections shot into the hypodermis?
It is highly vascular
____ is red pigment of RBCs that is visible through dermal collagen fibers.
____ is yellow pigment from diet that concentrates in stratum corneum and subcutaneous fat.
____ is pigment that is synthesized after UV radiation, produces yellow, brown, black and reddish hues and is concentrated in moles and freckles.
Blueness resulting from deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood is called what?
Redness due to dilated cutaneous vessels is called what? It can be caused by anger, sunburn or embarrassment.
The yellowing of the skin and sclera from excess bilirubin in the blood is called what?
Bilirubin is produced when?
When RBCs die
Golden-brown color resulting from Addison disease, a deficiency of glucocorticoid hormone is called what?
Pale color from lack of blood flow is called what?
A genetic lack of melanin is referred to as what?
A bruise (visible clotted blood) is also called a what?
Discolored skin caused by benign tumors of dermal blood capillaries are called what?
Hemangiomas or birthmarks
These type of birthmarks disappear in childhood.
These type of birthmarks last for life.
Port wine
These are flat aggregations of melanocytes that are caused by heredity and sun exposure.
These are elevated melanized skin that sometimes present with hair and are usually benign.
____ ____ leave oily fingerprints on touched surfaces and form a unique pattern during fetal development.
Friction ridges
____ ____ form after birth by repeated closing of the hand.
Flexion creases
____ ____ form in wrist and elbow areas
Flexion lines
Providing a barrier, vitamid D synthesis, cutaneous absorption, sensory function, thermoregulation, psychological and social functions are all functions of what?
The skin
This substance produced by the body is involved in regulating blood calcium and phosphate levels.
Vitamin D
Nails are clear, hard, densely packed with hard keratin and are formed from the ____ ____.
Stratum corneum
A spoon like shape in nails indicates what?
Iron deficiency
Clubbing in nails can indicate what?
Hypoxemia or a deficiency in oxygen
New cells of the nails are added by mitosis in the nail ____.
Hair and nails are composed of ____ ____.
Hard keratin
Hair is toughened by ____ ____ between molecules.
Disulfide bridges
The ____ of hair is visible above the skin.
The ___ of hair is below within the follicle.
The ___ of hair is an oblique tube within the skin.
The ____ of hair is the swelling in the base where hair originates.
Vascular tissue in the ____ provides the hair with nutrients.
Straight hair would have a ____ cross-sectional area.
Wavy hair would have a ____ cross-sectional area.
Kinky hair would have ____ cross-sectional area.
Hair color is due to what?
Amount and type of melanin
Hair is derived from ____ cells.
Mitosis of hair occurs in the ____ ____ of epithelial root sheath
Stratum Basale
Hair grows ____ mm every 3 days for 2 to 4 years.
Abnormal hairiness in women or children is called what?
Masculinizing ovarian tumors and the adrenal cortex hypersecretion of testosterone can result in what?
This term describes thinning hair.
What kind of glands are sweat or sudoriferous glands?
Merocrine glands
Apocrine sweat glands are located where?
Groin, anal region, axillary region
These glands produce oily sebum. They prevent dry, brittle, cracked skin/hair and open into hair follicle or skin surface.
Sebaceous glands
These glands are found in the external ear canal. They produce cerumen (earwax) which waterproofs the ear and repels mites and other pests.
Ceruminous glands
The most vulnerable organ to injury and disease is what?
The skin
Inflammation of the skin is called what?
A fungal infection of the skin is called what?
Tinea or ringworm
A red rash of nose and cheeks is called what?
Recurring patches of scaly white and or yellow inflammation is called what?
Seborrhaic dermatitis
Acne is caused by what?
Inflammation of sebaceous glands
Microorganisms feed on ____ from sebum causing inflammation and plugging glands during acne formation.
Whiteheads are also known as what?
An open comedo, or blackhead, is dark due to what?
Lipid oxidation
The most common form of eczema is what?
Atopic eczema
Eczema is treated with what?
Emollients and topical steroids
This skin disease is an immune-mediated skin disease involving T-lymphocytes. It involves abnormal epithelial growth. Dead cells create a white, flaky layer over the patch of inflamed skin in this disease.
The most common form of psoriasis is what?
Plaque psoriasis
This skin disease is a bacterial infection and is highly contagious.
This type of skin cancer in the least likely form to metastasize. It arises from cells of the stratum basale and invades the dermis. It is treated by surgical removal and radiation.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
This type of skin cancer arises from keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum. If it is neglected it can metastasize to the lymph nodes and become deadly.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
This type of skin cancer is the most deadly. It arises from the melanocytes of a preexisting mole.
Malignant Melanoma
Those who use sunscreen have a higher incidence of what type of skin cancer?
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Sunscreens appear to offer protection against what type of skin cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Chemicals in sunscreen damage ___ and generate harmful ___ ___.
DNA; Free radicals
What are the two things that can lead to death after a burn?
Fluid loss and infection
What is eschar tissue?
Dead tissue
A burn that only affects the epidermis that has red, painful edema is what kind of burn?
First degree
A burn that affects the epidermis and part of the dermis that contains blistered skin is what kind of burn?
Second degree
A burn that affects the epidermis and the dermis that will often require skin grafts or fibrosis is what kind of burn?
Third degree
What is the treatment for a burn?
Fluid replacement and infection control
The removal of dead tissue to prevent infection is called what?
A graft that receives tissue from a different region of the patient is called a what?
A skin graft from an identical twin is what kind of graft?
A graft that uses keratinocyte patches is what kind of graft?
A temporary graft from an unrelated person is called a what?
Homograft or Allograft
A temporary graft from another species is called a what?
Heterograft or xenograft
A temporary graft from an afterbirth is called what?
Artificial skin grafts can be made from what two things?
Silicone and collagen