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57 Cards in this Set

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serous membranes

double layer epithelial membrane that is closed to the exterior, lines the walls or cavities that surround the viscera and cover the viscera.

parietal layer

outer serous epithelial membrane that lines the walls or cavities, folds back on itself to form the visceral layer.

visceral layer

inner serous epithelial membrane that lines the visceral

serous fluid

fluid between the parietal layer when it folds on itself, lubricant prevents the viscera from sticking to the cavity


heart, parietal and visceral, serous membrane


abdominal region, parietal and visceral, serous membrane


lungs, parietal and visceral, serous membrane

mucous membranes

epithelial membrane that is exposed to the outside, secretes a substance that aids to absorbs or trap particles

cutaneous membrane

epithelial membrane pertaining to the skin

connective membrane

synovial membranes found in synovial joints


characteristic of skin that is the mechanical barrier for the body between the internal environment from the external environment

temperature regulator

characteristic of skin that aids the body for maintaining optimal body temperature for homeostatic balances

provides protection

characteristic of skin that absorbs harmful rays such as UV rays

prevents water loss

characteristic of skin that contains proteins and lipids that lock moisture inside of the body

houses sensory receptors

characteristic of skin that possesses specialized nerve endings and general free nerve endings to provide information about the environment

excretes wastes

characteristic of skin that aids to remove metabolic wastes and excessive electrolytes through pores of the skin

synthesizes chemicals

characteristic of the skin that aids the body to absorb calcium by synthesizing vitamin D


top region of the skin that consists of stratified squamous cells and specialized cells, lacks blood vessels

basal strata

deepest epidermal layer that touches the basement membrane, only layer that is vascular due the blood vessels in the dermal region and is able to undergo mitosis to create new epidermal cells


specialized cells that are located int he basal strata with extension that invade in the other layers of the epidermis, produces melanin which helps contribute to skin color and absorbs harmful rays to protect the body

spinosum strata

epidermal layer right above the basal strata that contains the newly divided cells

granulosum strata

epidermal layer above the spinosum strata that consists of cells that are starting to die since the epidermis has no blood vessels, granules start to appear and be visible in the cytoplasm


no blood vessels

corneum strata

epidermal top layers that has dead cells containing keratin


protein that serves to prevent water loss from the skin

lucidum strata

epidermal layer that is only present in the thicker parts of the skin such as the soles of feet and palms of hands, it is between the granulosum and corneum and causes the corneum to become thicker


intermediate region of the skin that consists of loose connective tissue and accessory structures of the skin such as hair follicle, sebaceous gland, sweat gland, blood vessels, nerve fibers, sensory fibers, collagen, elastic fibers

papillary region

superior region of the dermis and binds to the basement membrane of the epidermis, contains free nerve endings that radiate into the epidermis to detect all types of stimuli

dermal papillae

in papillary region of dermis that is the uneven edge of the dermis that connects to the basement membrane

meissner's corpuscle

in the papillary region of dermis, a modified nerve ending that detects light touch.

reticular region

inferior region of the dermis that contains most of the accessory structure of the skin, contains the modified nerve endings call pacinian corpuscle

pacinian corpuscle

modified nerve ending in the reticular region of dermis, detects mechanical or heavy pressure

subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)

deepest region of skin below the dermis that contains the loose connective tissue, insulating adipose tissue, and major blood vessels. it binds the skin to underlying organs

skin color determinants

hemoglobin, genetics, environmental, physiological

genetic factor

skin color determinant that melanin size and color is determined and controlled by genes

environmental factor

skin color determinant that outside factors such as sun exposure, diet, and light exposure from X-rays can affect the melanin production and pigments from vegetables such as beta carotene can be displayed on the skin

physiological factor

skin color determinant that circulation in the dermal blood vessels and whether or not the blood vessels dilate or constrict and temporarily affect skin tone

hair follicle

accessory structure of the skin that has a growing region called the hair bulb or hair root, located in reticular region of dermis, provides warmth and protection, color is determined by melanin

arrector pili

dermal muscle attached to the hair follicle and moves the hair follicle


oily substance produced by the sebaceous gland that is lateral to the hair follicle, makes the hair shaft and skin soft and pliable as well as waterproof, decreases the pH value of the skin in order to reduce the microbes on the skin

sweat glands

removes excessive heat, wastes, and inhibit microbes


water, metabolic wastes, and electrolytes

eccrine sweat gland

small glands that are widespread and responds to heat and stress

apocrine sweat gland

large glands usually attached to hair follicles, located in the auxiliary and groin regions, responds to heat, stress, emotional/sexual arousal.

ceruminous gland

modified sweat gland that is located in the ear canal, produces wax to trap particles in the ear canal

mammary glands

modified sweat gland located in the thoracic region and produce milk

regulation of body temperature

vital for maintaining metabolic reactions

excessive heat exposure

sweat glands activated to remove excess heat and moisture to the surface of the skin, dermal blood vessels dilate to increase amount of heat escaping the skin

excessive cooling exposure

sweat gland deactivated, dermal blood vessels constrict to keep heat close to body, arrector pili muscles contract to generate heat and cause hair follicle to stand straight to trap heat to the surface of the skin

first degree burn (partial burn)

injury to epidermis, example is sunburn

second degree burn (partial burn)

injury to the epidermis and dermis, example is cooking burn

third degree burn (full thickness burn)

injury to all three regions of skin

rule of nine

method of calculating how much body fluid and electrolytes are lost due to the burn


cuts to the skin

basal cell carcinoma

cancer induced by chronic sun exposure and that occurs when some of the basal strata cells become cancerous, elevated and fluid filled lesions and tumor cells invade the dermis but does not metastasize

squamosal carcinoma

cancer induced by chronic sun exposure and affects the spinosum strata of the skin, flat and scaly lesions, can spread to lymph nodes


cancer induced by intense exposure to the sun and damages the melanocytes