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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two main reactions that take place in a chloroplast?
Light dependant reactions and light independent reactions.
Where do the light dependant reactions take place?
Where do the light independent reactions take place?
What does a thylakoid look like?
A pancake in a stack.
What is the stroma?
Gooey stubstance that fills the chloroplasts.
What does the light dependant reaction produce and what does it need to do this?
Oxygen, Needs water and sunlight.
What does the light independent reaction produce?
Sugar (Glucose, sucrose, starch)
What is ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
If electrons leave, what is happening?
If electrons are gained what is happening?
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO(2) + 6H(2)O + sunlight --> C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6O(2)
What colours does a chlorophyll absorb and reflect?
Chlorophyll a
A- Violet-blue, Red-orange
R- Bright green to Blue-green
Chlorophyll b
A-Violet-green, orange
B- Yellow-green, olive-green
What colours does a carotenoid absorb and reflect? What is the wavelength in relation to chlorophyll?
A-Violet-blue, Blue-green
B- Orange
Absorbs longer wavelengths
What colours does a xanthophyll absorb and reflect?
A- Blue-green
R- Yellow
What colours does a phycoerythrin absorb and reflect?
A- Green-yellow
R- Violet-red
What colours does a phycocyanin absorb and reflect?
A- Yellow
R- Red, Violet, Blue
What is ETC?
Electron Transport Chain
What is a photon?
A visible light particle
What colours does a phycobilin reflect and where is it found?
Red and found in red algae.
Where does photosynthesis occur?
What is the lamella and what is their purpose in chloroplasts?
Joins thylakoid stacks together. Like a bridge.
What is a grana?
A full thylakoid stack.
What is the inside of anything called?
What are the first and second layers of the chloroplast called?
Outer and inner membrane.
List 3 products of light dependant reactions
ATP, NADPH, Oxygen
What captures the energy in a chloroplast and where is that energy stored?
Pigments, stored in Photosystem II and Photosystem I
When water is converted into oxygen and hydrogen, what are the hydrogen used for?
Use energy from Hydrogen to convert ADP + Pi into ATP.
What it called when the chloroplast uses the energy from Hydrogen to convert ADP + Pi into ATP? Where does it occur?
Chemiosmosis/ ATPase. Happens in the ATP Synthetase
Why is ETC important?
Lots of excess energy released in controlled environment
What is G3P?
The most simple sugar that we in turn use to make glucose, sucrose and starch. The first product of the dark reactions.
What are all the names for dark reactions?
light independent, calvin cycle, carbon- fixation
What are NADPH and ATP used for in dark reactions?
to oxidize Carbon Dioxide into G3P
What happens in dark reactions?
NADPH and ATP oxidize CO(2) into G3P
How many ATP and NADPH 's does the system need to use to convert each CO(2) molecule?
Why is Photosystem 1 after Photosystem 2?
It was discovered first.
Name all six parts of a mitochondrion
Outer + Inner Membrane, Matrix, Ribosome, DNA.
What is cellular respiration?
The process in which cells break down glucose into CO(2) and water releasing energy (ATP)
What are the four steps? Where do each occur?
Glycolysis - Cytosol
Pyruvate Oxidation- Matrix
Krebs/ Citric Acid Cycle- Matrix
Etc/ Chemiosmosis- Matrix/ Inner membrane
Which steps need oxygen? What is this called?
ETC/Chemiosmosis. Aerobic.
What are the reactants and products of cellular respiration?
Glucose, Oxygen. (Maybe water)
Water, Carbon Dioxide, ATP (energy)
What is the net total ATP produced from cellular respiration?
How many ATP are produced in each step?
1- 2 from making pyruvate
2- none 3- 2 from converting ADP
4- 32 from converting ADP
What happens in glycolysis?
Glucose splits into 2 pyruvate.
2 ATP --> 2 ADP +Pi WHILE 2 NAD+ --> NADH
THEN 4 ADP + Pi --> 4 ATP
What are the three processes that can happen to the pyruvate produced in Glycolysis?
Lactic Acid fermentation, Alcohol fermentation, and Cellular respiration
What happens in both kinds of fermentation?
-NADH oxidizes to NAD+ producing lactic acid and 2 ATP
- C0(2) is lost, to produce Acetaldehyde, NADH oxidizes to NAD+ producing ethanol and 2 ATP
How many times does pyruvate oxidation happen?
What happens in Pyruvate Oxidation?
Lose a CO(2) --> NAD+ reduced to NADH /WHILE/ CoA attaches to left over acetyl acid to form AcetylCoA
How many times does the Krebs Cycle happen?
Name all the reactants and products of the Krebs Cycle
-2 NAD+, ADP + Pi, FAD+, 1 NAD+
What happens in the Krebs Cycle?
AcetylCoA drops off energy and goes back to Step2, CO(2) is produced and leaves the system, eventually getting breathed out, 2 NAD+, ADP + Pi, FAD+ and 1 NAD+ are all reduced.
Where does the ETC/ Chemiosmosis happen?
Inter membrane space/ matrix
What happens in the ETC/Chemiosmosis?
NADH, FADH(2) oxidized releasing energy, electrons pass down to stronger electron acceptors releasing energy, electron energy used to pump H into inter membrane space and then through ATPase making ATP
What enters the ETC first, NADH or FADH(2)? Explain.
NADH enters first because it has higher energy and as such can travel longer along the ETC and release more each time it's passed down.
What is the final electron acceptor?
Which step is oxygen located in?
ETC/Chemiosmosis- final acceptor.
Where does the NADH from Glycolysis go?
Straight to the ETC.
When does lactic acid fermentation happen?
When there isn't enough oxygen to function the ETC.
/Why/ happens in lactic acid fermentation?
No O(2), NADH and FADH(2) build up, not enough NAD+ for Glycolysis. Use less efficient pathway making NAD+ but only producing 2 ATP.
What uses Alcohol Fermentation?
Alcohol, Bread, Vinegars , Sour Crout, Soy Sauce, Chocolate.
What is the equation for Cellular Respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---------> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy (ATP)
In Glycolysis, how many of each molecule is made?
2 ATP--> 2ADP
In Krebs Cycle, how many of each molecule is made?
What is lost in Krabs cycle? Where do they go?
CoA and 2CO(2). CoA goes back to Pyruvate Oxidation, CO(2) eventually gets breathed out.
What steps happen in both anaerobic and aerobic fermentation?
Glycolysis (2 ATP, 2NADH, 2 Pyruvate are made)
What happens in lactic acid fermentation?
Glycolysis. 2ATP-->2ADP /WHILE/ 2NAD-->2NADH, 4ADP-->4ATP, 2 Pyruvate is made but b/c no oxygen pyruvate is converted by OXIDIZING NADH back into NAD+. Generates only 2 ATP
What happens in ethanol fermentation?
Glycolysis. 2ATP-->2ADP /WHILE/ 2NAD-->2NADH, 4ADP-->4ATP, 2 Pyruvate is made and converted into 2 acetaldehyde with help of H2O /WHILE/ CO2 is released. New acetaldehyde OXIDIZES NADH back into NAD+. Glycolysis continues, produces 2ethanol.
What is a primary pigment?
A pigment needed in a cell in order to pass energy to the ETC.
What is an accessory pigment?
A pigment that catches and passes on all the energy a primary pigment doesn't get.
Where does lactic acid fermentation occur?
What is VO(2) Max?
maximum use of oxygen per cell per minute.
What does VO2 max stand for? What is it's real name?
Volume of Oxygen Maximum.
Maximum oxygen consumption.
Why do runners walk after a long run?
Low on O2, lactic acide is building up, if you walk--> breathe better/more O2 allowed into lungs--> deliver O2 to muscles which have been deprived while running--> O2 converts lactic acid back to pyruvate.