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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Four Types of Biological Molecules

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

Protein Monomer componets

Hundreds of amino acids

Nucleic Acid Monomer components

Nucleotide monomers

Carbohydrates Monomer components

Saccharide's or as polymers of saccharides


Two or more amino acids Covalently linked


Chain of many acids joined by peptide bonds

R Group

Abbreviation of any group in which carbon or hydrogen atoms are attached

What types of bonds hold amino acids together

Peptide bonds

Four levels of protein structue

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary

DNA Structure

Double Helix; Sugar, Phosphate, and bases, bonded together by hydrogen

3 Components of a(n) Nucleotide

Deoxyribose (sugar), 1 Phosphate, and one of the four bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine)

Four Bases found in DNA

Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine

Four bases of RNA

Thymine is replaced by Uracil. Adenine and guanine are known as purines and cytosine and thymine are known as pyrimidines

Sugar in DNA & RNA

DNA- Deoxyribose

RNA- Ribose

Why are cells so small?

Surface area to the volume ratio

2 types of microscopes discussed in class

Electron And Light Microscope

6 types of cell proteins

Channel, Transport, Cell Recognition, Receptor, Enzymatic, and Junction

Cell Theory

Scientific theory which describes the properties of the cell

Prokaryotic Cells

Lack a membrane-bounded nucleus

Eukaryotic Cells

Has a nucleus that houses its DNA

Three types of Cell Junctions

Adherens, Gap, and Tight


are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them.

Cell Membrane

Semi permeable surrounding the cytoplasm of the cell


are ancient molecular machines that are responsible for production of protein in all living cells.

Do plant cells have mirochondria

Yes both animal and plant cells have a mitochondria

Mitochondria function

To perform cellular respiration


Relative amount of disorganization

Where is energy stored at in ATP

Energy phosphate bond joining the terminal phosphate group

First Law

Conversions of energy- energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can change form

Second Law

Energy cannot be changed in form without a loss or usable energy (heat is the least usable form)


A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring bout a specific biochemical reaction (Protein)

Activation Energy

Energy needed to cause molecules to react with one another


A substance or layer that underlines something, or on which some process occurs, in particular.

Active Site

Region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction

Induced Fit

When an enzyme binds to the appropriate substrate, subtle changes in the active site occur

Metabolic Pathway

Series of linked reactions

What happens when a metabolic pathway is interrupted?

Product of a one reaction becomes the reactant or the next selection


Process by which molecules intermingle as a result of their kinetic energy of random motion


Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane

Bulk Transport

Movement independent of gradients, energy required

Active Transport

Substances move from lower to higher concentration, energy required

Passive Transport

Substances move from higher to lower concentration, no energy required

How many autosomes are found in the human cell


How many sex chromosomes are found in the human cell

pairs of 23

Cell Cycle

Mitosis and Cytokinesis occur, DNA replication occurs a chromosomes, Growth occurs as cell prepares to divide

Steps of interphase

G1, S (DNA synthesis), G2

What phase are chromosomes visible?

Phases of Mitosis

Nerve cell; not dividing again


Stages of Mitosis

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase


Part of a chromosome that inks sister chromatids or a dyad

Chromosome number during mitosis

remains the same, so 46

Role of a tumor suppressor gene

code for proteins that inhibit the cell cycle and promote apoptosis

Role of a protooncogene

code for proteins that promote the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis

Cell Plates

A plate that develops at the midpoint between the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell and that then forms the wall between the two daughter cells

Cancer Cell

A disease of the cell cycle in which cellular reproduction occurs repeatedly without end

Sister Chromatids

Refers to either of the two identical copies formed by replication of a single chromosome

How are sister chromatids related

They are indentical


Programmed cell death

Cell fragments engulfed by white blood cells

Normal part of growth and deveopment


Different forms of the same gene

Haploid Cells

Only contain one complete set of chromosomes most common are gametes - sex cells

Used in sexual reproduction

Diploid Cells

Two cells of chromosomes

Every cell other than sex uses mitosis somatic (Non-sex)

Anaphase of meiosis 1 vs meiosis 2

1- Homoogous separate, and dynads move to poles

2 - Sister chromatids separate, becoming daughter chromosomes that move to poles

When does crossing over occur

When a tetrad forms during synaphis, the nonsister chromosomes exchange genetic materials crossing over

Accomplished by Meiosis

1.) Reducing chromosome #

2.) Shuffling chromosomes and genes to produce genetically different gametes, called sperm and eggs