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136 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 div of bible
1. pentateuch
2. prophets
3. writings
one overarching principle uniting bible and Israel
do good -> rewarded

do bad -> suffer
the beginning - refers to the topics in genesis
topics in genesis (2)
1.univ history of mankind
2.patriarchal period
stories in patriarchal period
adam & eve
obedience of wives/husbands
cain & abel - offerings
significance of flood
1st covenant w/ god - will not try to destroy man again bc he's weak
"Names" - name for exodus
2 Exodus parts
2. exodus

10 commandments given in 2. chapter 20
mt sinai
mountain in egypt where god delivered 10 com
portable mount sinai, people could carry god with them

a temple that could be torn down and rebuilt
a horn, sounded to tell ppl to come up to mnt sinai to meet w/ god
Vayikra (Lev) 4 part
laws of levis, purity, holiness, sacrifice
Dereim(Deut) 3parts
means book

creation of earth
death of moses
promise land
jewish book naming
based on first word
greek book naming
based on theme
6 early prophets

1,2 sam
1,2 kings
3 major Later Prophets
3 wisdom books in writings
psalms, proverbs, job
5 scrolls
song of songs
song of songs
love poems
about vanity & wisdom
commitment during period of judges

ansestor of david
lement about destruction of 1st temple
assimilated jewish girl, saves israel
ha sefarim
"The books" - earliest common term for describing hebrew scripture
letter of aristeas
uses greek translation of "the books" to describe pentateuch
greek for reed or cain - used as measuring rod

source of term canon
defiles hands
all books in cannon defile hands, way of saying what was official and what wasn't
processs of canonization
evidence as early as 2nd melenium bc of widely accepted official members of bible

pent closed - 6th century bc
prophets - 2nd century bc
writing - end of 2nd century bc
metamei yadayim
hebrew for defiles hands
sig of bib references to torah (of moses)
name for pentateuch

metnioned in ezra/nehamia (about restoration after babylonian capitivity - now in persian period ~539 bc)

So we know it was closed by 539
scripture on head and arm (jew tradition)
scripture on door jam (jew tradition)
mishna what and when
topically organized collection of oral laws of Judaism, written 200 ad
supplemented mishna, written 175 -200 ad
sages who wrote mishna and tosephta
ommission of daniel from prophets
suggests daniel came about after prophets closed... so must have been closed by 2nd century
judith and macabees exclusion from bible
came about after it closed, not divinely inspired
2 types of biblical lit
1. prose - narrative, little dialogue, lots of consecutive verbs

2. poetry - verse has words acting as beats.Second half answers first half. law never put in poetry.
ben sira
scholar & scribe whos book, sirach, didn't make it in
How far back can trace HEBREW manuscripts
only about 1k

sig** other translations go back futher
signif - translations go back further than our oldest hebrew mss

3rd cen bc

the oldest greek version of old test, written for Ptomely the Second (285-247)
the seventy - named for 70 elders who ascended sinai w/ moses

not perfectly consistant w/ MT, has several books not canonized and other books w/ additions (eg esther is 2x as long)
abrev for septuagint
Letter of Aristeas
corrier for ptolemy 2nd

describes to friend philocrates the eye witness account of translation of torah into greek by 72 scribes in diff rooms -> all came w/ same translation

story has some fiction, but places a date on septuagint 2nd cen bce. older than oldest hebrew mss
originally paraphrasing of ot produced for aramaic speeking jews who were loosing hebrew

There are 2 official
* Targum Onkelos on the Torah (The Law)
* Targum Jonathan ben Uzziel on the Nevi'im (The Prophets)

Talmud explicitly states that no official targumim were composed besides these two on Torah and Nevi'im alone, and that there is no official targum to Ketuvim
name for writings
jewish court
2 decisions after destruction of second temple -- when
in 70 ad, the jewish court met in YAVNEH decided

1. could pray directly

2. bible closed
another name for sirach, or wisdom of ben sira

didn't make it in
current status of septuagint
jews don't use it anymore

became official text of greek orthodox church
babylonian talmud - signif - gives account of story similar to?
sig b/c gives remarkably similar account to letter of aristeas
aramaic targum
oldest targum, dating to mid 2nd cen bc

needeb bc last centuries bc many spoke aramaic

translation considered innovation, encountered some resistance

may go back to time of ezra/nehamia w/ reference to obsure hebrew in torah
philosopher in alexandria who recorded synagogue as place for studying torah, not prayer.

They would read, translate, then discuss

**these oral translations and discussions were first steps toward written translation. because of the tradition of interpretation, many targums include mishradic expansions

Targum Onkelos
considered OFFICIAL targum for torah (Law)

very systematic translation, word for word replace hebrew w/ aramaic

had an agenda:
1. remove all Anthropomorphic terms for god
2. changed meanings to reflect better on god
3. avoid direct use of god name
4. make patriarchs look good
5. omit rhetorical questions
6. varried duplicate words in sentence
7. provide w/ rabbinic commentary
Targum Jonathan
OFFICIAL targum for nevi'im (prophets)

very similar to onkelos style, but looser
Targum of Torah – Palestine
targums that existed which weren't official, often fragmented

the palestine targum is the oldest for the torah
11 caves near Dead Sea, where scrolls discovered

very pious ppl lived there

very dry and hot. lived in caves. dry heat preserved texts

names of texts
jewish military leader who surrendered in roman wars

wrote aniquities of the jews
the jewish wars

wrote about 3 sects
josephus 3 sects


REJECTED idea of afterlife, angels, and resurection

great wealth which was used for political power

thought god not concerned w/ mans actions
most opposite of sadducees

wealth in this life indicated God blessed a person and poverty was a curse as a result of sin.

sect believed in eternal soul, angels, reward/punishment of deeds, freedom of will, resurection,
sage law interpretation
very similar to pharisees, but more elitist

3 years to be full member


Priestly Aaronic Messiah and a Kingly Messiah

poor but thought of themselves as wealthy, very content w/ little

verrrry pious

daily bathing
fixed prayer

jewish and romans found them pecular
why essenes chose desert
jeremiah a verse says Israel's start in desert was glorious
stats on qumran findings
over 1k mss

800 from bible

all bible books found save Ester

mostly in square script w/ some paleo hebrew

dates of scrolls 150 bc - 70 ad

most bibilical scrolls to 2nd century bc
finding scrolls
-which cave best
bedoin sheep herder

best cave was first one
jubilees dss
found @ qumran, gives solar calendar w/ completely different holidays that essens may have celebrated
temple scroll
one of longest dss

describes jewish temple plans (never used), regulations and practices

written as revelation from God to moses

may have thought soloman should actually have built the temple in this way
to transmit
2 scribe practices to reduce errors
1. copy from existing text
2. version not authorized removed from circulation
massoretic text
official hebrew text from which all modern translations are derived

has always been idea of masoretic text (mentioned in aristeas letter and talmud)

dss most closely align w/ it than any other (eg vs septuagint)
bound book rather than scroll
moses ben asher codex

when? (recent)
asher was scribe, wrote in 895 ad

oldest hebrew mss w/ complete text of prophets

found in karaite synagogue in cairo

Aleppo Codex

oldest full what

date (pretty recent)
also called KETER - crown

929 AD, oldest copy of full bible

accords w/ dss
dss vs mt
several families of text from 2nd century bc

in spit of all families, match very closely w/ MT
2 silver amulets from tomb
600 bc, have excerpt from numbers

** oldest piece of bible
septuagint vs mt

esther is 2x as long
jeremiah much shorter (have found hebrew texts that match it though, perhaps mt contains additions)
samuel somewhat shorter
Kidron Valley
in israel, where silver amulets found
halakhic letter
letter from qumran sect to jurasalem detailing their practices and telling them they disagree w/ theirs and they should follow the essene ways

describes essen practices in detail
significance of mosaic authorship
moses would have had an eye witness account of bondage & exodus making it very reliable
the torah of moses
name used to describe pent as early as persian period. supports mosaic auth

name also used in ezra & nehemia
exodus and levit on moses auth
both say, in 3rd that he wrote the LAW

might assume moses wrote all the law
the 10 commandments, found in ex and deut
narrative motivates law
1st comm, took you out of egypt, have no gods before me

see the law as dependent on narrative, suggests written simultaneously. so if moses wrote one, likely wrote other

law emph compassion, draws from bondage examples
parity treaty
treaty between equal parties
vasal treaty
treaty between superior and inferior

ex - treaty btw egypt and hitites, where egypt was sup. Parallels treaty btw god and man w/ ten comm
thomas hobbes
brit philosopher, wrote leviathin, critisizing mosaic authorship

thought he wrote what bible credits him for, nothing else

one of first critics
Benidict Spinoza
dutch philosopher who criticisized full mosaic auth systematically in theological tractate
theological tractate
text by spinoza, asserts moses didn't write pent, ezra did
Jean Astruc
doctor, wrote conjectures about memoires moses used to write pent, first suggestion of DOC HYPOTH

in 18th century, he hoped to refute crit of spinoza and hobbes in 17th

ended up convincing most that moses didn't write it
3 args of astruc
1. shifting names of god: yahweh, elohim

2. duplication of narrative w/ inconsist (joseph sold to diff tribes)

3. chronological confusion - 3 slave generations... or 400 years of slavery?
documentary hypothesis
pent derived from independent docs which were combined/edited into current state by redactor(s)
19th century doc hyp (3 strands + redactor)
3 major strands & editor who pulled together

1. P -priestly strand - geneolgoy,covenants,worship,

2. two docs combined for narrative
2.1 J - jaweh
2.2 E -elohim

3. D - deut, added later, own source

R- redactor - in time of ezra, maybe ezra, pulled together
Julius Wellhausen
used principals to order 19th century hypoth

P - latest, complex, and in nature simple precedes complex

thought P done after jeuresalem destroyed in 586

D - tied to end of 7th century bc King Josiah
King Josiah
wellhausen thought he did Deuteronomy

He went around destroying all rural temples

wanted central worship in israel, and only Deuteronomy has focus, so he is credited w/ writing deuteronomy
king josiah destroyed temple -> became stove houses
centrality of worship
what josiah wanted, why he destroyed temples
signif of wellhausen
genisis not historical, retrogression written later, faking facts

says it tells more about 1st mellenium bc (when supposedly written) than 2nd when it pretends to be

beleived desert nomads model for patriarchs
ur of caldese
abraham said to come from there, but caldese wasn't around yet...

**supports wellhausen
domesticated camels
may not have existed in time of narratives where mentioned

** suports wellhausen
complex rituals
anthro shows many primitive socieites to have very complex rituals. undermines wellhausen simple->complex rule
reliable oral tradition
anthro shows it to exist, underimines wellhausen theory that time of writing was origin of idea
names and lifestyle in 2nd mellinium bc
consistant w/ names and lifestyle of patriarchs.. suggests story accurate and wellhausen wrong
contemporary view on trusting bible for history

can't trust bible for reconstruction of history

libowitz thinks outlines of narrative can be trusted - anylizing bib text and extra bib texts
do israel map
do it
extra biblical evidence support distinct patriarchal period
1. Names - 2nd vs 1st are different. Bible patriarchs have 2nd mell names

2. the names are distinct in biblical and extra biblical sources to that period
dealt w/ by abraham & isaac in text, but they come in 12th cen bc, while abraham in 18th

support arg of fictional patriarchal period
Chgar Bazar
18th century txt in syria w/ name JACOB

supports 2nd mel name theory
theophoric names
names formed: noun + verb

common in 1st mel bc, not 2nd... the patriarchs names aren't theophoric, supports distinct patriarchal prd
asiatic ppl invaded egypt in 2nd mel

one ruler named jacov

supports 2nd mel names
traditions invented in patriarchal narrative prior to settlement

mores of patriarchs have parallels w/ mores of mar town
town in 2nd millennium bc where

sacrificial & treaty

MORES paralleled patriarchs

cut animal in half for covenant making. parties to treaty walk btwn halves.

genesis 15:9-10 abraham divides several animals in half, and god promises him land and offspring. flaming torch (god) passes through pieces - only god making promises here
offspring (eg - those promised to abraham)
king of Salem brought abraham sacrifice when he returned w/ Lot after saving him from captivity

abraham gave him a tithe - showing he thinks he's a legit priest
city w/ FAMILY traditions matching those of patriarchs

1. slaves adopted when no sons. if sons came then sons became heirs instead

**much like abraham in genesis

2. childless wife had to find husb concubine - just as sarah did w/ hagar

3. birthright of oldest son - double portion of inheritence

matches issac and jacob story
sacred stone
setup in by jacob in sacred area (2nd m)

1st m - deut says god hates sacred stones
marrying wifes sister
jacob marrys leah, but wants sister rachel

lev prohibits marrying wifes sister while wife alive
marry half sister
abraham wife is half sister

lev prohibits marrying half sister
lack of heroism in patriarchs
abraham just says wife is his sister to avoid death

supports idea of authentic story. fiction would be more heroic
area where Canaanite temple burned by joshua, had statues w/ hands raised to air (praying)
Battle of Megiddo
4 vs 5 kings, notable for names of 15th century (2nd mill) style
lesson from bondage experience
compassion - point of any religion, definitely Judaism
did bondage happen?
no extrabiblical support

plenty of references in bible
slave population explosion
god fullfilling promise to abraham (miracle)

problem for pharo

hebrew describes them as swarming like crawling creatures
pharos 3 attempts to stop slave pop growth
1. put slave drivers over them
2. had midwives kill males secretly (but midwives sympathized w/ jews)
3. open homicide of any male child
moses hebrew name
never used, unkown

forever called by egyptian name to honor pharo's daughter who saved him
egyptian for "give birth to", suggests possibly accurate since its a legit egyptian name
pithom & ramseys
2 cities mentioned in ex ch 1

pithum -> per atum - house of egyptian god atum

ramseys -> house of ramses
phinehas & hophni
real egyptian names of pithom & ramsesy
2 types of bible law
1. apodictic - do this, don't do this

2. casuistic - case law - in case you do such and such, handle it in manner
abraham separates from lot
their herdsmen didn't get along. lot went east into jordan
1st covenant
after lot leaves abraham, god gives abraham all land he can see and promises tons of descendants
babylonian talmud
w/ septuagint, makes is 2nd most important translation

499 ce writing finished

in hebrew and aramaic

contains mishna and gemara
first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions
300 years worth of study of mishna
tractate of mishna about esther

sig: may read in greek only if don't know hebrew

shows mishna auth understood need for translation