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68 Cards in this Set

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king of judah at time of fall of Samaria (Northern Kingdom).

Father of Hezekiah

thought of as very wicked for religous concessions made w/ pagan assyrians
Tiglaf Pileser 3
Assyrian king who dealt w/ Ahaz - letting Judah become a vasal state of Assyria instead of destruction.

Assyrian reports confirm Ahaz paid tribute to Tiglaf
blending religions, as ahaz did w/ pagan assyrian religion
Isaiah (first)
lived during ahaz, hezekiah

prophet who resented israels being vasal state of Assyria, Said assyria was staff of god, punishing sinful Judah. Prophesied coming of king Hezekiah

like amos, thought sacrifices shouldn't be used to excuse intentional sin.

chapters 1-39
king following ahaz

Good king, reformed religion and tried to reunify Israel. Rebelled against Assyria.
"high place" - used for sacrificing to gods.

Hezekiah removed non central bamah outside of judah, to centralize sacrifice.
hezekiah's reunification efforts
invited north to have passover in jerusalem ( expecting it may incite war w/ assyria)

named son Manasseh, after N tribe

may have played some administrative role over a few n tribes
siloam tunnel
tunnel built by hezekiah to bring outside water to jerusalem when under siege. built under city wall.
shalmaneser V
Assyrian king after tiglaf pylesser. Short reign of 5 years. Began invasion of Samaria, died during it. Sargon II finished samaria
Sargon II
Assyrian king after Shalmaneser V, finished destruction of Samaria. Reigned almost 20 years before succ by Sennacherib (son).
son of Sargon II, reigned after him. Hezekia rebelled against him and he attacks Judah, whiping out all BUT NOT jerusalem.
capital city of Assyria
ten lost tribes
10 northern tribes which were scattered after samaria destroyed by assyrians.
city between coast and jerusalem. was sacked by sennacherib before sieging Jerusalem
king of Judah after Hezekiah, son of Hez. Undid most of Hezekiah's reforms and political work, again makes judah vasal state of assyria
arch evidence of hezekiah
- siloam tunnel & inscription (recalling meeting in middle of tunnelers)

- assyrian finds, refer to Hezekia the jew, made a prisoner in his own city (bird in a cage)

- carvings on 3 sides of assyrian thrown at nineveh, show conquest of Lachish and war w/ jerusalem
Isaiah ( second )
covers chapters 40 ->

a contemporary of Cyrus, almost 200 years later than first.
chronicles vs kings on Manasseh
kings - he was all bad, unrepentant, his sins will cause fall of judah

chronicles - he was taken in chains to babylon (where assyrian king was?), and was repentant
son of Manasseh, continued paying tribute to assyria and idolatry. Assassinated by his servants after 2 years on throne.
succ of Amon(his father), first reformer after hezekiah

Assyria in weekened position, babylon not yet risen to power, egypt still recovering from assyrian rule. power vaccum would allow israel under josiah to rule itself.

began repairs to solomons temple, "book of the law" was found in temple, and lead to josiah's being upset about fathers not following law. thought destruction by god imminent.

wellhausen thinks its deuteronomy due to centrality of worship focus.
Priest who discovers book of law and gives to josiah
death of josiah
Egypt coming north to assist assyria, fearing rise of babylon.

Josiah attempts to stop egypt, killed in city of Megiddo by Pharo Necco II

put judah under egyptian control for short period
Ashurbanipal & Sinsharishkun
two kings of Assyria during time of Josiah and near end of assyrias power
two stages of fall of judah
1. 597 bc - babylon under nebachanezzer takes control, deposes king Jehoiakim

2. 586 - final destruction of city and temple by neb of babylon in response to rebellion
judean prohpet exiled 597 to babylon. (2nd deportation)
jerusalem prophet fled to exile in Egypt in 587
son and succ king of judah after josiah dies. Reigns only 3 months. Necco II comes and removes him from thrown, taking him back egypt as prisoner where he dies.

he did not adhere to reforms of his father
Eliakim -> Jehoiakim
Name changed when became king

succ and older brother of jehoahaz. placed on thrown as PUPPET KING (vasal to egypt) by necco II after jehoahaz taken prisoner to egypt

tyrant, money spent building palace w/ forced labor

when babylon defeated assyria/egypt in 605, started paying tribute to babylon. 3 years later, w/ egyptians still warring babylon, switched back to paying egyptians -> seige and fall of jerusalem in 597
necco II
egyptian pharo who aided assyrians in war against babylon. killed josiah at magido and removed jehoahaz from thrown, inserting puppet Jehoiakim
Jehoiachin / Jeconiah
son of Jehoiakim, succ who reigned for 3 monts before babylonians took over israel.

taken captive w/ leading citizens including ezekiel (first deportation)
second deporation
597, babylon takes over israel, deports jehoiachin and leading citizens to babylon.

beginning of jewish community in babylon/iraq
jehoaiachin's uncle, installed as king when jehoaichin taken captive by nebuchanezzer. the last king of judah before its destruction.

people regarded jehoiachin as true king, in spite of exile - ezekiel dates exile to johoichin, not zedekiah

despite protest of jeremiah and others. he revolts against babylon and nebachanezzer destroys the city entirely.
Ezekiel and Jeremiah - on dealing w/ babylon
both advised submission to babylon

both point to sins of ppl as causing wrath of god in form of babylonian rule

ezekiel thought sons died for father's sins

jeremiah thought son's didn't die for fathers sins
1st deportation
605, whe assyria fell to babylon and israel came under their control

first deportation of jews to Babylon. Scholars and artisans
valley of dry bones
ezekiel said, signif? see last day of notes
lachish letters
* written to Yaush, an army commander over shetela, the low hill country
* written from a lower officer Yosiah
* message: We don’t see fire signs of Azekah (city must have fallen), waiting for signals of lahish
o taken as evidence of fall of Judean cities azekah and lahish, possibly to sennacherub
baked clay used as seal on burned letters. baked in house fires
member of jewish royal family, appointed military gov of judah by babylonia after jerusalem destroyed.

assassinated. caused many, including one major prophet, to flee to egypt (starting the jewish community there)
edict of restoration
cyrus, persian king, determined to build new temple in jerusalem

consistent w/ prphecy in second part of isiah, where cyrus spoken of as messiah like figure, gods agen t of restoration

no extra bib support, but feasable, persians have history of benevolence
persian religion
dark vs light - a war of good vs evil,

isiah argues religion god is always in control of both light and dark
haggai, zecharia, malachi
last of prophets

now must interpret given scritpure
persian period
period where israel under perian rule, cyrus, during restoration

would last until persian empire defeated by alexander the great
true remnant of israel?
ezekiel - exiles are the true remnant
government during persian period
no king (in spite of promise from jeremiah and ezekiel)
no reunification w/ northern kingdom, lost 10 stayed lost

high priest ran temple, performed admin duties for persian gov.

nominal head answered to persian gov
owl of athena
pagan symbol found on coins minted by high priest during persian period
Ezra & Nehemia
really memebers of persian court, serving persian kings.

books switch from hebrew to aramaic

commissioned by persian gov to go to israel and restore order

texts in style of personal memior

not team mates, just at same time
ezra vs nehemia
ezra - scribe, teacher, religous leader


nehemia more practical, wanted to build a defensive wall around city
problems israel faced during restoration
economic failure, crop failure

struggle to build temple w/ Sumeritans

issue of intermarriage - foreign wives

shift of language to aramaic (Not reallya prob)
pagan/jewish group from north (not original tribe), wanted to build temple w/ judeans in jerusalem during persian period. were turned down, start trouble
san balatt II
military govenor of samaratins, angry about rejection of help for temple, starts telling persians that south building fortress to rebel, causing temple building to be delayed
persian king who allowed jews to finish building of temple in jerusalem after restoration and struggle w/ samaritans
constitution of jews during restoration
tora used as constitution. new ephasis placed on reading and study of law -- attributed to ezra, the scribe, viewed as second moses
scribe, viewed as second moses who emphasized study of law
personal scribe of jeremiah
gemaryahu son of shaphan
guy mentioned in jeremiah, whos seal was found in ruins of destroyed jerusalem
malachi on marriage
against divorce, but contradicts ezra & nehemia on intermarriage
hebrew name of ester
changes that came w/ restoration
1.shift in language (hebrew -> aramaic)
2. shift in script. paleo hebrew -> square script
3. months names changed
4. prphecy ends (intrepreation starts- sages)
5. nature of prayer
book of ester
generally thought to be fiction.

setting during persian empire

sexual conatations concerning kings staff ( extended to show favorable reception of someone )
king of babylon, who conquered assyria w/ help of MEdes in 605.

gave son Nebachunezzer II the throne
the original name of zedechia
prophet during reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah,

much like amos, witnessed social injustice of rich and poor and paganism - all which was supposedly coverd by sacrifice. Micah saw this as corupt!
young teen part of 1st deportation to babylon in 605, becomes member of court, famed for interpretting dreams and survives lions den
described in book of jeremiah as kings son, ordered to take jeremiah's scribe baruch

his seal and baruchs have been found
josiah religious reforms
1. centralized worship in jerusalem (more so than hez). killed pagan priests and samarian priests he thougth guilty of idolatry
2. invited israel to come worship at the cetnral location of jerusalem

signif - patriotic, in wanting independence from assyria, but also in fear of doom for sins israel committed.
prophet during time of zedechia, viewed babylonians as doing work of gods discipline, and that eventually they would be judged and judah saved
main message that judah was doomed. admired josiah greatly, didn't care for jehoiakim.

rejected national confidence in davidic promises.

settle in egypt when group fled after assassination of gidalyahu
valley of dry bones
ezekiels vision that means hope for restoration that is coming