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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A key feature of the cell wall is that it is …?
A plant with poor flower and fruit growth will be lacking …?
Active transport uses energy from …?
An amoeba uses this to get rid of its excess water.
Contractile vacuole.
An insecticide is an example of a …?
Animal cells behave differently to plant cells when taking up or losing water because …?
They lack a cell wall.
Another term for a herbivore would be …?
Primary consumer.
Apart from bioaccumulation how else can pesticides cause problems?
By harming non-pest organisms such as bees.
Apart from fuels how else can biomass be used?
Eating it, livestock feed, growing the seeds.
At the start of the nitrogen cycle proteins and urea are converted into …?
Ammonia and ammonium compounds
Bacteria or fungi can transfer energy from biomass into useful products by which process?
By what process do bacteria and fungi release carbon dioxide?
Changing the temperature affects the rate of decay by affecting …?
Microbial respiration.
Crop rotation is a techniques used in what type of agriculture?
Organic farming.
Give a disadvantage of biological control.
Difficult to establish, control organism could become a pest.
Give an advantage of biological control.
No environmental damage, cheap in the long term.
Give one possible use of hydroponics?
Glasshouse tomatoes, growing crops in areas of barren soil.
Give one reason for developing biofuels.
Renewable, reduce air pollution, energy self-reliance, carbon neutral.
Give three ways in which carbon dioxide gets into the air.
By plants and animals respiring, by burning fossil fuels, by the activities of decomposers.
Give two examples of intensive farming.
Fish farming, glasshouses, battery farming.
How are leaves adapted to absorb sunlight?
They have a large surface area and lots of chloroplasts in the palisade layer.
How are leaves adapted to gas exchange?
They are thin and allow gases to diffuse in and out through holes called stomata.
How are root hair cells adapted for absorbing water?
They have thin cell walls and a large surface area.
How do decomposers, like soil bacteria and fungi, break down dead remains?
They release enzymes to digest the dead matter and then absorb it.
How do detritivores increase the rate of decay?
By producing a larger surface area of organic material for decomposers to act upon.
How does carbon dioxide enter the leaf cells?
By diffusion.
How is a lot of carbon locked up in the marine environment?
In the carbonate shells of marine organisms and limestone deposits.
How is the upper epidermis adapted for efficient photosynthesis?
It is transparent.
How would you prove that water passes up the xylem tissue?
Stand a plant in dyed water for a few hours. Then cut a section of the stem and find out where the dye is located.
If plant cells are placed in a strong sugar solution water will pass ..?.. of these cells.
If red blood cells are placed into distilled water they burst. This is called ...?
In addition to water and mineral uptake, what other function do roots have?
They anchor the plant in the soil.
In what concentration are minerals usually found in the soil?
Keeping animals penned indoors reduces …?
Energy loss through heat.
Leaf guard cell turgidity is affected by …?
Light intensity and water availability.
Leaf veins supply water and also give … ?
Materials that will decay are usually called …?
Name three fuels from biomass.
Wood, alcohol, biogas.
Name three methods of food preservation.
Canning, freezing, drying, salting, pickling, irradiation.
Name two detritivores.
Earthworm, maggot, woodlice.
Nitrates help growth by allowing a plant to make …?
Amino acids and proteins.
Nitrogen is needed to make proteins in plants. In what form is it taken up?
Not all the food eaten by an animal goes to form new tissue. Why is this?
Some is ‘lost’ in the urine and faeces and some is used in respiration.
Not all the sunlight falling on a leaf is absorbed and used. Why not?
Some is reflected, some passes through the leaf and some light that is absorbed cannot be used for photosynthesis.
Phloem is a column of …?
Living cells.
Plants are grown without soil using a method called …?
Salts can be taken up by cells against a concentration gradient by ...?
Active transport.
The main concern of the public about organic produce is its …?
These tubes carry dissolved food from the leaves to the rest of the plant.
These tubes carry water and mineral salts up the stem in plants.
This acts as a partially permeable membrane in plant cells.
Cell membrane.
This type of membrane allows small molecules (like water molecules) to pass through but not large ones.
Partially permeable.
Turgor pressure in plant cells results from the cytoplasm pushing against the …?
Cell wall.
Water passes into plant cells by osmosis making them ...?
What are fertilisers?
Chemicals that are added to the soil to replace missing nutrients removed by a crop.
What are the upper and lower layers of leaf cells called?
What can be used as an alternative to toxic chemicals in the control of pests?
Biological control.
What conditions cause the rate of transpiration to decrease?
Still, humid, cool conditions.
What conditions cause the rate of transpiration to increase?
Windy, dry, warm conditions.
What could you do to a potometer to make conditions a) windy? and b) humid?
A) put the potometer near a fan b) put a polythene bag over the shoot.
What do biomass pyramids show?
The mass of living material at each stage in a food chain.
What do plants need to carry out photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, water and sunlight.
What do we call many food chains interconnected?
A food web.
What do we call the continuous flow of water from the roots up to the leaves in the xylem?
The transpiration stream.
What do we call the evaporation of water from the leaves into the air?
What do we call the passage of water molecules from a weaker solution into a stronger solution through a partially permeable membrane?
What does a potometer measure?
The rate of water uptake.
What is a detritivore?
A small animal that feeds on pieces of dead, decaying matter (detritus).
What is a variegated leaf?
A leaf with some parts white where chlorophyll is missing.
What is bioaccumulation?
The build-up of toxic substances along food chains.
What is decomposition?
The rotting away of dead plants and animals by microbes.
What is meant by the term egestion?
Getting rid of solid waste from the body.
What is meant by the term saprophytic nutrition?
Feeding on dead/decaying organic matter by releasing enzymes.
What is the abundance of nitrogen in the air?
What is the detritivore in this food chain: dead animal-blowfly maggot-blackbird-owl.
The blowfly maggot.
What is the key adaptation of the spongy mesophyll layer?
Presence of air spaces for gaseous exchange.
What is the main concern about intensive farming?
Animal welfare.
What is the symptom of magnesium deficiency?
Yellow leaves.
What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water (light and chlorophyll) glucose + oxygen
What is translocation?
The movement of soluble food around the plant in the phloem.
What organisms act as decomposers in the carbon cycle?
Soil bacteria and fungi.
What prevents excessive water loss from the leaf surface?
Waxy cuticle on upper epidermis.
What sort of bacteria convert ammonia in the soil into nitrates?
Nitrifying bacteria.
What sort of bacteria convert nitrogen in the air into nitrates?
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
What structures open and close stomata?
Guard cells.
What three minerals are usually found in fertilisers?
Nitrate, phosphate, potassium, magnesium.
What type of plant would result in an inverted pyramid of number?
A tree.
What usually happens to the number of individuals as you go up a pyramid of number?
It decreases.
When animal cells lose water they become …?
When cells are no longer firm and turgid, we say that they are ...?
Where is the xylem and phloem found in a stem?
In a ring of vascular bundles.
Where precisely is soluble food translocated to?
Growing points, roots, storage tissues, flowers.
Which mineral is needed to help enzymes in respiration and photosynthesis?
Which two agrochemicals contributed to the increase in crop production during the ‘Green Revolution’?
Fertilisers and pesticides.
Why are food chains limited to a small number of stages?
Because efficiency of energy transfer is low. Losses occur at each trophic level.
Why are nitrates needed by plants?
For protein synthesis and therefore cell growth.
Why do hydroponic systems need additional fertillisers?
There is no soil to provide nutrients.
Why do plants and animals not use nitrogen directly?
It is too unreactive.
Why does a food chain always start with a producer?
Producers can make their own food from simple substances. Green plants use sunlight as a source of energy.
Why is it often more accurate to record biomass rather than number of individuals, for example, in the case of an oak tree?
Biomass tells you how much living material there is and so avoids the problem that organisms differ greatly in size.
Why would sugar be translocated to a flower?
To provide nectar.
Xylem is made up of …?
Dead cells.