• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

272 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which side to introduce a crop tube?
What light is useful for examining a stressed bird?
Blue or Red
Take swabs from where for full examination
Oesophagus Crop Choana Trachea Air sac Cloaca
Total blood volume of a bird as a %?
6-13% Larger in smaller birds
What percentage of blood can be taken from a bird?
1% of body weight
Sites for blood collection?
Brachial (Basilic) Medial Tarsus (caudal tibial esp waterfowl) Right Jugular
Acid fast stain for?
Giemsa stains for?
Grams stain for?
Modified Giemsa stain for?
Stamp stain for?
Sudan 3 stain for?
Features of a heterophil?
"Rod shaped, eosinophilic, lobed nucleus, colourless cytoplasm"
Features of an eosinophil?
"Blue cytoplasm, lobed nucleus, granules evenlyu distributed"
Name 3 types of inflammation?
"Macrophagic, Purulent and Proloferative"
Which diseases produce macrophagic inflammation?
"Avian TB, Chlamydia, Mycotic infections, Cutaneous Xanthomatosis, Foreign body reactions"
What type of inflammation will be caused by overwhealming bacterial infections?
Purulent inflammation
Which cell predominates with proliferative inflammation?
Which cells feature in Aspergillosis?
Giant cells
When would you find macrophages in sheets?
Tuberculous granuloma of the lung
When would you get a heterophilic inflammation?
With acute inflammation
The classification of a Carcinoma is?
The classification of a Sarcoma is?
How much barium for contrast radiography?
0.05mls / g
What should you do before endoscopy?
Xray to assess the size of the organs
How long to fast before endoscopy?
3 hrs to avoid reflux
What size endoscope is useful?
Risks with avian endoscopy?
"Ruptured liver and bleeding. If bleeds, raise head 45 degrees to avoid blood in lungs"
GLDH is very specific for?
Liver Cell Necrosis. Is in the mitochondria for hepatic cells
GGT useful for ?
Bile stasis
Bile acids increase with?
Reduced liver function
Birds with no gall bladder are?
"Pigeons, Parrots, Ostriches and Rheas"
Fasting is necessary to check Bile acids in birds with?
No gall bladder
Bilirubin is useful for?
Obstructive jaundice
Interpret Calcium in conjunction with?
Which calclium is more accurate?
Hypocalcaemia common in which bird?
African Grey
Urea useful for what?
Assessing hydration
How many times more efficient is the avian pulmonary system ?
10 times more efficient that mammals
Features of the avian lung?
"Fixed to roof of thorax, less distensible, thinner blood-air barrier"
How many air sacs?
8 (80% volume capacity)
Which are the unpaired air sacs?
Cervical and Clavicular
Name the paired air sacs?
"Cranial Thoracic, Caudal thoracic and abdominal"
Why are air sacs susceptible to aspergillosis?
Poor vascularity
A feature of airflow in birds?
Unidirectional. There are aerodynamic valves at junctions of bronchi and parabronchi
Air flow sequence?
trachea to syrinx to primary to secondary to tertiary bronchi or parabronchi to air sacs
Site of gas exchange?
Parabronchi or tertiary bronchi. A network of sacs and capillaries.
What is Insufflation?
Air sac perfusion
What can induce apnoe in waterfowl on induction?
The diving reflex
What will help dilate the pupil of an avian eye?
How long can an air sac tube be left in situ?
3 weeks
Intubate above what size?
Where is the rimma glottis?
Caudal tongue
What is the Crista ventralis?
A horn like projection acros the lumen of the glottis that can prevent intubation
Which birds have a Crista ventralis?
"Penguins, Hornbills, Toucans, Some gulls"
When should you pre oxygenate a bird for GA?
With pre existing respiratory disease
When should you delay a GA?
If PCV less than 20% or if renal impaired
Which part of airway is affected if dyspnoea and cyanosis?
Which part of airway with a change in voice?
Syrinx. Syringeal aspergillosis
Signs if infection just in the air sac?
"Malaise, Inappetance. Not necessarily dyspnoeic."
Fluid rate in birds?
50ml / kg (can give 10ml/kg as a bolus before GA)
When can you repeat a blood transfusion?
After 1 week. Dont have to cross match.
When to give blood?
If PCV less than 20%
Which vein to give iv fluids?
Ulnar vein or superficial basilic
What weight not to fast a bird for GA?
Less than 200g
How long an interval without food before develop hypoglycaemia?
3 hours
In which birds is buprenoprphine ineffective?
Are steroids safe in birds?
No. Use with care. No more than 48hrs worth. Use short acting.
What drug is effective for feather plucking?
Clomipramine. 1mg/kg po
Which cases would you NOT use domitor and letamine?
"Obese, cardiac and renal impaired"
What is Telazol?
Tiletamine and Zolazepam. Has been used orally in buzzards.
Propofol in birds?
When not to use Nitrous oxide?
Respiratory disease
Circuits to use in birds?
Ayres T and Mini Bain
Is the eye position useful for monitoring?
No. Its fixed.
Corneal reflex for GA monitoring?
Yes. Slow but present.
Can resp rate be used for anaesthetic monitoring?
Not consistent. Can be fast wehn light and deep
Use of pulse oximeter in birds?
Use with caution. Monitor Trends and changes.
Is a capnograph useful for monitoring?
How soon should a budgie eat after GA?
Within 30 mins otherwise crop feed
Emergencies during a GA?
"Doxapram, Pull tongue, adrenalin"
2 Parasites in the oral cavity of birds?
Capillaria and Trichomonas
3 viruses in oral cavity of birds?
"Pox virus, Herpes virus and Psittacine Beak and Feather disease virus"
Gizzard worm know as?
Name 6 GIT bacteria?
"Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Megabacteria and Mycobacteria"
Name 6 GIT virus infections?
"Papillomata, PBFD, Adenovirus, Rotavirus, Psittacine Proventricular Dilation and Polyomavirus"
Lymphoplasmic ganglioneuritis and encephalitis also known as?
Mesenteric ganglioneuritis also know as?
How to control PRDS?
"Closed collections, Hygiene, Keep in isolation for years and PCR testing"
What age can a bird get PPDS?
From 10 weeks to 17 years!!
What caused PPDS?
A Borna Virus or rather the Immune reaction to the virus
What is used to treat PPDS?
COX2 nsaids. Ideally Cellebrex
What species of bird can get PPDS?
"Many Psittacines, Toucans, Canaries, Finches, Spoonbills and Canadian Geese"
What tests can be used for PPDS?
"Antigen PCR, Serology and check for Leucocytosis. Also xrays"
Signs of PPDS?
"Anorexia, depression, undigested food in faeces, regurgitation of food, CNS signs (abnormal head movements, ataxia, siezures, proprioceptive reflexes)"
What is damaged with PPDS?
Autonomic ganglia
What is the incubation period for PPDS?
Up to 4 years!
Differentials for PPDS?
"Megabacteria, Parasites, Heavy metal poisoning, neoplasia, FB, Yeasts, Viruses and Vit E def"
What is PBFD?
Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease
What casues PBFD?
A Circovirus
How long outside the host can PBFD virus last?
2 years
How many forms of PBFD are there?
"3. Acute form, Intermediate form and Chronic form"
What are the signs of the acute form of PBFD?
"Neonates in the growing phase, some found dead, most get 90% feather damage within a week"
What are the signs of the intermediate form of PBFD?
"Bird is weak, some feather dystrophy, marked leucopaenia. African Greys 2-9 months."
Which is the commonest form of PBFD?
Intermediate form
What are the signs of the chronic form of PBFD?
"Mature birds, powder down feather afected first, shiny beaks, dystrophic feathers stop growing as they emerge from follice, Progressive Immunosuppression, Lymphocytosis"
In which birds does PBFD occur naturally?
Free living Australian cockatoos
How do you diagnose PBFD?
"PCR of feather pulp, blood and faeces"
What do you do if you get a positive PCR for PBFD?
Isolate the bird and retest. If still positive PTS
What treatment has been tried for PBFD?
Avian interferon
What are the signs of avian upper respiratory disease?
"Inflammed cere, neck stretching, exercise intolerance, dysponoea, open mouthed breathing, nasal plugs, peri orbital swelling, head shaking, epiphora"
Name two diseases of Psittacines that often causue URT disease?
Chlamydiosis and Chronic malnutrition (excess of seeds)
What are the signs of lower respiratory tract disease?
"Voice change, dyspnoea, tail bobbing, cough, difficult inspiration and expiration, inappetance and vomiting"
What organism causes Psitticosis?
Chlamydophila psittaci
What is Chlamydophila psittaci?
An obligate intracellular parasite capable of trasmission via cell mitosis
Which bird is most commonly affected by Psittacosis?
How many serovars of psittacosis are there?
"5. psittacine, 2 x pigeon, duck and turkey"
From what can a bird become infected with psittacosis
"faeces, feather dust"
How long is the incubation period for psittacosis
5-7 days
What are the signs of psittacosis in humans?
"anorexia, nausea, photophobia, chest pain, vomiting, pneumonia, headache, spike fevers, night sweats"
What are the signs of psittacosis in birds?
"Often latent for years, respiratory signs, conjunctivitis, fluffed up appearance, Lime green diarrhoea"
How is psittacosis diagnosed?
"PCR (batched faecal), Immunocomb (in house), ELISA (Clearview, Rapid Chlam, Surecell but can get false positives)"
How soon after antibiotics can a bird be PCR negative for psittacosis?
48 hours
What is the best available test for psittacosis in house?
What blood changes might you expect with psittacosis?
"Raise liver enzymes, raised fibrinogen and raised WBCc"
What organ do you need to diagnose psittacosis from an impression smear?
Name 2 antibiotics used to treat psittacosis?
Doxycycline for 45 days and Azithromycin
Anatomy of the avian nasal cavity?
"2 halves, 3 segments (conchest) into sinuses"
"What will cause squamous cell metaplasia, hyperkeratosis and sterile abscesses in the nasal, choanal and lingual area?"
"Vit A deficiency. Treat with 30,000 IU every 3 weeks"
With an avian sinus infection what can you flush with?
Baytril 0.75ml in 20mls saline
What is a rhinolith?
A marked proliferation of the cere
What is the long term consequence of a sinus infection?
Name 3 birds that are particularly susceptible to aspergillosis?
"African Grey, Amazon Parrot and Cockatoo"
What is Syngamus trachea?
Gape worm
In which bords are the gape worm more common?
Ground birds
What intermediate transport hosts are involved with the gape worm?
"Earthworms, slugs and snails"
What is Sterrastoma tracheocolum?
Air Sac Mite
"What are Serratopiculum, Cyathostoma and Trichomonas and what system do they infect?"
Respiratory parasites.
How can a bird get aspiration pneumonia?
Crop Feeding and after a GA
What is the prognosis for aspiration pneumonia?
Above what temperature is teflon released from non stick cookware?
>280 degrees C
Features about nebulisation?
"Ionising is best, less than 0.5 microns, 5 times per day, 20 mins"
What might cause a budgie to have a click sound on inspiration?
Iodine deficiency from feeding low grade seeds
Excessive egg laying will eventually cause?
Osteoporosis and malnutrition. Prone to yolk peritonitis.
What can be done to prevent excessive egg laying?
"Dont remove the eggs, reduce photoperiod to 8 hrs/d, remove the nest, remove toys, change environment, reduce energy of feed."
Treatment for excessive egg laying?
"Salpingohysterectomy, Suprelorin every 12-18 months, HCG, Leuoprolide acetate every 2 weeks for 3 doses"
Why would a bird get egg binding?
Torsion of the oviduct or fluid deficiency
How would you diagnose egg binding?
xray WBCc and Ca
What treatments are available for an egg bound bird?
"Fluids, Calcium, wrming, surgery (drain and implode). Oxytocin is ineffective."
Any treatment options for egg peritonitis?
Coelomic draining and hyaluronidase lavage. But adhesions.
Name 2 viruses involbed in cloacitis?
Herpes (oncogenic) and Papilloma
How would you treat a cloacal prolapse?
Cloacopexy and cloacoplasty
Name some parasitic causes of feather plucking?
"Mites and lice, but uncommon. White sheet at night. Also a type 4 hypersensitivity."
Name som allergic causes of feather plucking?
Food (sunflower) House dust and aspergillosis
Name some environmental causes of feather plucking?
"Smoke, too dry (central heating), excessive daylight (cover up)"
Name some metabolic causes of feather plucking?
"Septicaemia, psittacosis, liver dz, hypothyroidism (cockatiel)"
Toxic causes of feather plucking?
Lead and Zinc (cheap cages)
Main infectious cause of feather plucking?
Name some psycological causes of feather plucking?
"Boredom, attention seeking, stress, sexual frustration, OCD, trauma and pain"
What types of toys should you give a parrot?
"Climbing, Chewing, Foot and Puzzle"
What drugs can be used to alleviate stress in a bird that is feather plucking?
"Haloperidol, Prozac and Clomipramine"
What relationship should an owner have with its bird?
Parent Child or Leader Follower
What commands should a bird learn to obey?
"Up, Down, No and OK"
What percentage of time is spent preening?
What percentage of time is spent playing?
What percentage of time is spent flying for food?
In wild raptors the commonest fractures involve?
Wing 86%
In captive raptors commonest fracture involves?
Leg (tibiotarsus) 82%
What organism may be involved in an avian fracture?
Mycobacterium avium
What is a fracture of the tibiotarsus?
Fracture at the junction of 1st and 2nd third of tibiotarsus 3mm from the crest
When might a fractured tibiotarsus occur?
First week on perch with Jessies
How might you repair a fracture tibiotarsus?
Multiple intramedullary stacked pins
Which is the commonest throacic limb fracture?
Coroacoid Furcula Scapula. Esp Sparrowhawk (French windows)
How would you repair a fracture thoracic limb?
"<300g Immobilise the wing, Over 300g internal fixation."
Which is the commonest bone fractured in the wild bird?
Proximal Humerus. Esp Northern Goshawk and N Sparrowhawk
Why should you not flush the surgical site when repairing a fractured humerus?
Pneumatised with clavicular air sac.
What type of fixator might be used for a fractured humerus?
What percentage of mid shaft humerus fractures are compound?
What prognosis would you give for an elbow dislocation?
How would you repair a fractured radius?
Intramedullary pin
How would you treat a fractured ulna?
Cage rest and wing rest 3 weeks
What is synostosis and how would you treat?
Fusion of radius and ulna after fracture. Cut and insert fat pad to prevent reforming.
How might you repair a fractured pelvic limb?
Rush pins
Normal fluid requirement for a bird?
If a bird is sick what fluid replacement might you give?
"Assume 10% dehydrated. Replace half plus daily requirement in days 1, then quarter plus DR day 2 and quarter plus DR day 3."
What formula can you sue to calculate a drug dose?
E (dose) = [W in gms / 100] to the power 0.75 multiplied by D (dose for cat/dog in mg/kg)
What percentage of problems in birds are husbandry or managment?
What are and what causes frett marks?
Lines on feather. Stress disease steroids
What might cause deaths of canaries at fledging?
Toxoplasma. Look for big liver. Do impression smear of liver.
Best insurance for birds?
Golden Valley
Name 2 diseases you might consider with a distended crop?
Heavy metal poisoning and PPDS
What viral diseases might you consider with cloanal papilloma?
Herpes (oncogenic) and Papilloma
How much blood can you take?
1% of body weight.
What blood tube would you use for lead analysis?
What would you use to check for zinc?
Polypropaline. Non rubber syringe.
How much more efficient is the avian gas exchange?
10 times more efficient that mammals
What is the choana?
Slit in the roof of the mouth
What night cause a wider than normal choana?
"Vit A deficiency. Treat with 30,000 IU every 3 weeks"
What would cause a squamous metaplasia of the salivary gland?
"Vit A deficiency. Treat with 30,000 IU every 3 weeks"
Can you overinflate a bird?
Avian cardiac arrest usually ocurs after?
3 minutes of apnoea
What dilution of F10 to treat fungal infections and eye infections?
1 to 1000
What is a Nao Bow counting chamber?
WBC counting chamber. A+b+c+d divided by 20 - WBCc. Use Res Eckers stain.
Which is the onlymobile vertebrae?
A normal proventricum isless than 47% of?
the length of the sternum
Kidney enlargement puts pressure on which nerve to cause paresis?
What infections would you consider with an enlarged spleen?
"Aspergillosis, TB and psittacosis"
The heart width should be less than 50% the width of?
the chest
What is polyostosis?
Solid bones
When does polyostosis occur?
"Prior to breeding, dominant bird imprinted to human, hepatic lipidosis. Usually females."
What diet would cause artherosclerosis?
A high seed diet
Why can you get aspergillosisin some bones?
Becasue they are pneumatic (eg. Humerus)
What would air sac lines on an xray indicate?
Air Sacculitis
Between which ribs would you enter with an endoscope?
"Left side, between 7th and 8th ribs, caudal to sternum medial to pubis."
What disease might be induced using steroids?
Which compounds should you avoid in birds?
"Anything with aine. Eg. Lignocaine, amethocaine, procain"
What percentage of seed diets have aspergillosis?
What can cause acute respiratory distress and death?
"Fabreeze, Shake and vacc and aerosols"
Most human cases of psittacosis come from which birds?
Ducks and pigeons
What percentage of parrots in the UK have psittacosis?
Which bird species should you NOT use Itraconazole?
African Grey. Its toxic
How long should you use F10 nebulisation?
2 months
Another name for Macaw Wasting disease?
What causes Pacheco disease?
A psittacine specific herpes virus
Which birds are most affected by Pacheco disease?
Macaws and Amazons
Is Avian Influenza more commonin wild or captive birds?
Clinical signs of Pacheco disease?
"Sudden death (eg. In quarantine station) . Also depressed, watery green to bronze faeces. Some CNS signs. Multiple necrotic foci in liver and spleen."
Name 2 notifiable diseases?
Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza
What causes Newcastle disease?
Avian Paramyxovirus (PMV-1)
Birds are left or right?
Left. Left kidney. Left jugular.
What is the Apteriae?
The featherless track in Psittacines. Used for heat exchange?
What happens if you collect an avian blood sample in EDTA?
Erythrocytes lysed
What colour iris do the male and female cockatoos have?
Male is Black. Female is Pink
What colour sear does the male and female budgie have?
Male is Blue. Female is Brown. (however an old female with a tumour may have a Blue sear)
What might you consider with a lame budgie?
Abdominal tumour?
Which birds are very susceptible to PBFD?
"Parrots, Lovebirds, Ringnecks, Rainbow lorakeets, African Greys, Macaws and Cockatoos"
Is there a vaccine available for PBFD?
Not in the UK. Yes in USA. Give at 14 days old and 1 month later.
What is French Moult?
What happens to blood calcium with PBFD?
Low. Hypocalcaemia. Can get pathological fractures!
Which bird is most susceptible to the Polioma virus?
What type of virus causes Avian Influenza?
An orthomyxovirus
What birds have been implicated in spreading Avian Influenza?
Gulls during their post moult migration
Which parasite will commonly cause a GI blockage?
Which worm is often fatal?
Capillaria and Trichomonas
Why does a budgie vomit?
Courtship vomit or Trichomonas
Which bird can get a cloacal prolapse (floppy cloaca)?
the frustrated Cockatoo
How to manage the frustrated cockatoo?
"Reduce daylight, remove mirror, reduce energy of diet, Suprelorin implant, Offer fist not fingers, Parentchild relationship."
Do bird retinas have blood vessels?
Where do the secondary feathers of the forlimb insert?
Onto the periosteum.
How do avian bones grow?
Through cartilagenous extension
Why does a swan get angelwing?
Overfeeding of bread
When does PBFD affect a Lorikeet?
Only and ONLY when stressed! Must stop bird staff at a zoo working with Lorikeets.
Pathology of PBFD?
Necrotising enteritis and hepatitis. Basophilic Intranuclear inclusion bodies.
What type of virus causes PBFD?
What casues avain Malaria?
Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium elongatum
Common diseases of the penguin?
"Aspergillosis, Plasmodium (malaria), Heat exhaustion and bacterial infections"
Signs of Malaria in a penguin?
"Dyspnoea, air sacculitis, regurgitation and death"
What time of day would you take a blood sample from a penguin to check for malaria?
Mid morning. Maximum parasitaemia.
What will you look for from blood sample from a penguin with malaria?
RBC Intracellular organism. Lymphocytosis.
How would you diagnose malaria on PME?
"Splenomegaly, Hepatomegaly, Hydropericardium, Pulmonary epicardial and subcutaneous oedema."
What would you use to treat avian malaria?
Chloraquine or Primaquine weekly for 4 weeks
What animals are susceptible to Plasmodium infections?
"Penguins, wild passerines and Chelonians"
What are the linical signs of Plasmodium inection in a tortoise?
A fatal haemolytic anaemia
What are the main vectors of plasmodium species (Malaria)
Mosquito (Culex and Aedes)
Which birds can develop Iron Storage Disease?
"Toco Toucans, Mynahs, Quetzals and Bird of Paradise"
Definition of Iron Storage Disease?
An excessive accumulation of Iron in the liver and other major organs
Signs of acute iron storage disease?
Signs of chronic iron storage disease?
"Emaciation, dyspnoea, ascites, loss of balance and feather picking. Sometimes just see poor fertility!"
How do you diagnose iron storage disease?
Histology of liver. Look for haemosiderosis.
How can you monitor iron storage disease?
Serial liver histology with computer aided analysis of haemosiderin.
How would you treat iron storage disease?
"Remove iron (phlebotomy and chelation), Low iron diet, Avoid CITRUS fruits and add tea (tannins)"