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74 Cards in this Set

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The absence of infectious organisms.

Aseptic techniques

Restricts microorganisms in the environment and on equipment and supplies from contaminating surgical wound. It also prevents normal body flora from contaminating surgical wound.

External barriers

Skin and mucuos membranes which are usually impervious to most pathogenic organisms.

Inflammatory Response

Prevents an invading pathogen from reproducing and possibly involving other tissue.

Immune response

It involves the barriers that keep harmful materials from entering your body.


Person who harbors one or more specific pathogens in the abscence of discernible clinical disease.


Presence of pathogenic organisms on or in animate or inanimate object.


Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues causing cellular injury attributable to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication or antigen antibody response.

Superficial SSI

Infection of the skin and tissue.

Deep incisional SSI

Infection of the deep soft tissue, fascia and muscle.

Organ or space SSI

Infection of any part of the anatomy other than the incision.

Transmission of microorganisms

-by direct contact with an infectious person's articles or skin.

- by air

Characteristics of microorgansims

-unicellular untis (one cell)

-protista (plant kingdom)



Classification of microorganisms

cocci- round

bacilli- rod or tubular

spirilla- spiral or corkscrew- have the ability to move on their own.

Cell membrane

maintains the shape of the microorganisms.


Contains the microorganism's water content and most of the work is carried out here.


Contains the genetic makeup of the cell.

Slime layer

The capsule that completely surorunds the cell and acts as a protective layer which has disease producing power.

Factors that affect growth in microorganisms

Moisture, O2, Nutrition, Temperature


37 deg celcius - body temp


100 deg celcius, can survive at boiling point og H2O.


0 deg celcius


need O2 to grow and survive


can't grow if O2 is present.


can survive with or without O2.

Food sources for microorganisms

Glucose, phosphorus, proteins, O2, Nitrogen, Sulphur

Asexual reproduction

Reproduction which does not involve fertilization. Reproduces at a fast rate (hrs/days).

Bacteriostatic agent

Inhibits growth and reproduction of bacteria without killing them.


Destroys bacteria.


2 paird (dipole)



Causes: rheumatic fever, endocarditis


Harmless masses.

Clusters prevalent in the skin

Bacterial endospores

Bacteria that form hard outer shells to help them survive in unfavorable conditions.

e.g bacillus, cocci and closttridium

Harmful bacterial endospores

Anthrax and Tetanus

Fungal spores

Very resistant spores that are difficult to kill and spread through contact, floating on water or floating in the air. Most are helpful.

Harmful fungi

tinea pedis, ringworm, vaginitis, meningitis


Non filamented organisms that contain no chlorophyll and gives off enzymes which cause chemical changes in sugar. They are generally beneficial.


Causes 70 percent of yeast infections.


Contain long filaments and can be found in decomposed organic matter. Also found in buildings where warm, moist conditions exist.


Simplest form of life that is much smaller than bacteria and are avle to pass through bacteria filters.


First line of defense and protects the entire body.

Mucus membranes

Traps pathogens, dirt and particulate matter so that they can be sequestered and eliminated by the body.

Lymph system

Produce antibodes and contain nodes that act as a filtering system.


Synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody coated bacteria along with antibody coated blood cells.

Immune system

Collection of organs, cells and tissues that work together to protect your body from disease caused mostly by pathogens.


Local tissue reaction due to injury.

Causes of inflammation

ChESTER- chemicals, excessive heat, sun, trauma, electricity, radiation

Signs of inflammation

PRISH- pain, redness, immobility, swelling and heat


A collection of pus beneath the skin


Mass collection of boils


Dead bacteria and tissue


The presence of bacteria in blood and is often associated with severe infection.


The process of rising bubbles bursting which creates a vaccuum effect during ultrasonic cleaning.

Factors that affect ultrasonic cleaning

Temperature, detergent, time 20-60mins

Sterilization wrappers

muslin, paper, plastic peel packs (gas only)


Complete elimination of microbial viability.

Types of sterilizations

steam (safest most practical means)

chemical sterilization (cold sterilization)

gravity or downwards displacement sterilizer

Steam enters tube to release air. 250 deg F for 30 mins.

prevaccuum or mechanical air removal high temp sterilizer

Steam replaces vacuum. 272 deg F for 4 mins. 5 cycles.

Bowie dick test

Detects the presence of air leaks.

High speed pressure sterilization

utilizes high temperature by increasing pressure . Used for rapid sterilization. 270 deg F at 21 psi.

5 phases of steam sterilization

loading, heating, destroying, drying and cooling, testing phases.

types of chemical sterilization

liquid (cidex) -

gas (ethylene oxide)- colorless, inhalation effects of ammonia.

Ethylene oxide

colorless, inhalation effects of ammonia. 3-7 hours, gas concentrated at a temp of 70 to 140. Humidity of 40 to 60 percent.


Activated 2% glutaraldehyde. Instruments submerged for 10 mins. Once activated it is only good for 14 days.


Oldest form of liquid sterilization. takes 12-24 hours to be effective and is caustic to tissue.


The process of destroying or inhibiting disease-producing microorganisms outside the body. May not destroy spores.


Chemical used to disinfect inanimate object (outside the body).


Chemical used to disinfect or inhibit microorganisms in an animate object (skin, hand)

Bacillus stearothermophilus

Control for spore forming organisms.

Bacilus subtilis

used to monitor ETO sterilization

Surgical hand scrub

The ‘Gold Standard’ for surgical asepsis.


Provide a barrier between the patient and the health care worker, decreasing the probability of exposing the patient to exogenous organisms with a resulting surgical site infection or the heath care worker to exposure or to blood or other potentially infectious material.

Closed-gloving Technique

Technique of choice for initial gloving.