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45 Cards in this Set

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Idealization for the greeks
For the greeks, reason illuminates the possibility of perfection. In the period of the city states, in every aspect of Greek life, we see refinement of traditional forms in search of perfection.
What did Greeks value?
What were the three aspects of Greek idea of perfection?
dynamic balance (the tension of opposites, thesis-anti-thesis)
Organic unity (variety within unity-synthesis)
Clarity (reason)
Three major achievements of Greek sculpture?
1. Tremendous sensitivity to the form of the body and the development of an image of ideal human beauty shown in heroic nudity.
2. Discovery of points of balance in the midst of action in order to express the possibility of action in an unmoving sculptural figure (contrapposto)
3. Portrayal of consciousness and intelligence
Metaphorical qualities in Greek sculpture:
The metaphocial importance physical qualities are metaphors for moral qualitites. Heroic nudity, ideal physical form, contrapposto,
Heroic Nudity
Asserts that the subject's strength comes from within.
Ideal physical form to the greeks
represents the perfection of the subject's soul: its moral balance.
Contrapposto and the portrayl of consciousness.
Shows the figure is able to act confidently, intelligently, and courageously in the real world. The physical balance of contrapposto symbolizes the moral balance as articulated by Plato.
Classical image
When courage is balanced by wisdom, justice prevails.
Doric Order
represented to the greeks the balance between strength and grace found in a standing nude male figure.
Ionic Order
represented the balance between strength and grace found in a standing clothed female figure.
Art sends what kind of messages:
art sends emotional, physical, political, self expressive ideas.
What is art?
Somethign that is pleasing to the eye.
What is the life cycle of art?
Art is born, it exists, and then it dies. Frequently they are destroyed, murdereed.
What does art have to do?
It has to express your idea to an audience.
Explain the process of creation for a work of art:
The artist has an idea, they try and put it into the work. As the work progresses, it starts talking back to the artist. The artist's understanding of the work changes as it develops because the idea becomes more complete.
What happens when a viewer sees a work of art?
When the viewer sees art, they will have their own context so they will see it differently and it will have a different meaning for them.
Art is what?
Art is a way of seeing. it is not a list of objects. All human making can be seen in the context of art. If we look at it in the context of human making, we look at it as art.
Your world view
Anti thesis
Discover info and concepts that challenge your world view. This is how people think in terms of ideas that change them.
Cognitive dissonance
When you encounter new ideas you have a point of view and a belief. Cognitive dissonance is a jarring note this is how we learn. By coming in contact w/things that have different views. Have to move out of our little world and into the big world.
Classical Greek Culture
Initiated this way of thinking which Socrates called dialectic- arguing rationally and coming to a conclusion.
Simply a description of the scientific method. Hypothesis tested. Synthesis includes the new and old.
Subject matter
What it is. This includes cultural context, symbols, personal history, medium, techniques, physical properties, and all the baggage the artist is carrying.
What it means? This is why we look at art. If it didn't tell us something we wouldn't care.
What it looks like?
Can be representational or abstract. The shape of content.
Formal elements
visual elements the artist manipulates
a whole unified, recognizable thing. It comes from all the subject matter, form, and content working together.
Classical Western culture
In western culture, the tradition is centered around realism. The way the artist is judged is whether or not it accurately looks like something.
Head of a Man
Subject matter head of a man. We don't know who this guy is. The head was a fragment, Romans liked it so they had a bust carved for it and attached it to the head. Made of bronze which turns green with age. Originally would've been tinted and he would have looked like a real person. HE looks stern/disciplined. All Romans used to look like that. It was important enough to be sculptured that way. He has frown lines, a guy who has a lot of respobsibilities and worries alot. He doesn't look like someone who would give up. This is how he wanted to be remembered. Subject: roman man
Form: realistic
Content: characteristics we see in his face.
Realist art
You look for realistic clues. Is this a portraig of a realistic person. We know Romans commissioned portraits which are as accurate as photograpsh would be.
Classical tradition
Began in Greece and is fundamentally realistic. There have been controversy between artistis 500BCE is prolly the date and then tgey became submerged until 1400 in italy and florence.
What did Florentines call their city?
The New Athens
How long did the Romans realism last?
It continued until the beg of the last century.
Rome did what to greece? What were they suprised about?
They conquered them. They were suprised with the complexity of group culture.
Portrait of Caracalla
Pretty accurate portrait of him. Relatively lots that look similar. This is not only how he looked but how he wanted to be rememberd. He's intimidating. Looks ill tempered. Has less facial hair which indicates his status. He appears stern. Became emperor and wanted to restore law and order to the empire. He was the guy who was gonna fix it. He started out as a good emperor. But then the power made him ill tempered and unpredictable and violent. You can see that in the sculptures. If you saw and image of him during that time you had to go down on one knee and venerate the image as a demi god. This went to his head and he became paranoid and thought he saw conspiracies everywhere. Had ppl killed left and right. So his personal body guards murdered him because they thought he'd have them murdered next.
What were characteristics Romans valued?
Tough and ruthlessness. They didn't flatter people they were just so realistic and dominant with their personalities. Strength and military skill
How is Agustus portrayed?
He is always portrayed as he was in his youth, as not aging and remaining young. This symbolizes him as a demi god that is immortal and forever young.
Much more difficult to pick out. Realistic qualities, not taken from nature, much more ideal based.
Abstract comes from latin words
abs which out and tract which is pull. So abstract is to pull out. Implies pulling out what's important or essential. Artists pull out what they think is important if you move toward an idea it is more perfection how it ought to be.
REalism shows
How it really was. The realistic artist thinks of himself as an honest witness.
All kinds of idealization
There are very much culture bound. The ideal is bound to a specific culture. We don't ever know if its true or not. In any culture, the ideal body is the one that's hardest to get and maintain. Now the ideal is thin because food is all around us. Back in the day ideal to be large because it shows status.
image 5-26 Warrior from Riace
Found in the late 1970s by a snorkler off coast of Italy. Realistic statue lips are copper, eyes are stone, nipples copper, teeth silver. They really understood human anatomy. Absolutely realistic, but also what Greeks thourht was perfect. So it's idealized. He has great athletic ability. Bronze so it would be color of tan man who lived in medeteranian. It is a statue of a warrior. Would've had a shield and 2 spears. The ship transporting them was blowing over so they threw statues overboard to avoid capsizing. Each weighs several tons. Looks like he's a good athlete and he knows it. He's getting ready for an attack. He's full of adrenaline. Ideal they thought it was imp to kill ppl. Shown in ideal physical form according to Greek ideals because according to the Greeks a good athlete was a good warrior. The form of the body symbolizes the form of the soul. If you had an ugly body back then you'd also have an ugl=y soul. He's pictured naked because it is heroic nudity.
excessive pride in actually being the best.
Heroic nudity
He fundamentally doesn't need anything. His strength conmes from within because of his ideal soul. This symbolizes inner strength.