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34 Cards in this Set

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* degradation

* leads to pool formation



*leads to riffle formation

Primary types of Aquatic environments

* marine or salt water env't

* fresh water

* estuarine env't

Marine or salt water environment

* oceans

* high salinity * (~35%)

*97% of Earth's water

Fresh water environment

* lakes, ponds, reservoirs, wetlands, rivers, etc.

* low salinity (0.065-0.300%)\

Estuarine Environment

* interface between salt and fresh water

* salinity variable

* size variable- small (lagoons) and large (SF Bay)

riparian zone

transitional area between aquatic and up slope areas with water-dependent species


land area drained by a "stream"

Fluvial Geomorphology

how running water shapes the land

Hard Points along a stream course...

cause scouring which leads to formation of pools


stream that flows into a larger stream orbody of water, e.g., lake, estuary, bay

upslope area

area from riparian zone to top of divide in a drainage area -> may include a floodplain

lotic water

running water

What makes a stream a stream?

interconnected series of geomorphological units e.g. riffles and pools=mesohabitat units

Stream Order

* streams ordered from headwaters to mainstem rivers (upstream to downstream)

*on longitudinal basis

Stream Order System

First Order- Streams may be intermittent or seasonal

Second Order- at least two 1st order streams

Third Order- at least two 2nd order streams

Fourth Order- at least two 3rd order streams


*varies with elevation

* high gradient in head waters, low gradient in lower drainage

* expressed as drop in meters or feet per km or mile of stream


increase with stream order through accretion (addition) of flow from tributaries


relatively low in headwaters, increases with stream order


* Dissolved Oxygen

* high in headwaters due to aeration from turbulence, low temperature, ow Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

* low in lower drainage because of lack of turbulence, high temperature, and higher BOD

What is required to have "good
quality water?

* high DO (approaching saturation)

What makes D.O. high?

* atmospheric pressure

* water temperature

trophic status

* nutrient poor or oligotrophic in head water

* mesotrophic in midstream orders

* nutrient rich or eutrophic in lower drainage

Substrate particles

* large particles in head waters (e.g. gravel, cobbles, boulders)

* small particles in lower drainage (e.g. soil particles, sand, fine organic material)


* high inputs of Phosphorous and Nitrogen

* too nutrient rich

* pollution

* algae pop. increase and die faster than broken down by bacteria -> bacteria pop increase and use up all oxygen faster than can be replenished -> no life supported in that area


animal and plant life of a particular region or habitat

Biota in inland waters

* trout, sculpin & other cold water fishes in headwaters

* minnows, catfishes and sunfishes in lower drainages

Diversity in form & function of fishes-

trout & scupin

* inhabit cool, swift, well oxygenated water

* fusiform or dorsoventrally compressed

Diversity in form & function of fishes-

Bluegill (sunfish family)

* inhabit warm, sluggish waters

* greatly laterally compressed

Diversity in form & function of fishes-


* Ephemeroptera (mayflies)

*Cladocera & Copepoda (zooplankton)


* inhabit cool, fast, well-oxygenated water

*dorso-ventrally compressed

Cladocera and Copepoda

* inhabit backwaters of rivers

* limited mobility

- in ocean make vertical migrations

- don't have mobility to live in high velocity streams

allochthonous energy inputs into streams

* from outside the stream

* e.g. tree litter, run off, etc

*in head water streams


* from within stream

* e.g. photosynthesis

* in lowland streams