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130 Cards in this Set

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The region of Central America where the Maya, the Aztecs and other ancient cultures existed.
Ancient Mesoamerican civilization that thrived from about A. D. 300 to A. D. 900.
Warrior people who conquered Maya but who "withdrew" before the rise of the Aztecs.
Mesoamerican civilization that thrived in the 14th and 15th Centuries A. D.
Adena-Hopewell culture
Northeastern culture that thrived from 800 B.C.-A.D. 600 in the Ohio Valley and surrounding areas of the current United States.
Mississippian culture
Culture of the central Mississippi River Valley of the current United States, which thrived from A. D. 600 to A. D. 1500.
Anasazi culture
Southwestern culture that began in the 5th B.C., involved permanent pueblo settlements.
Christopher Columbus
Self-taught Italian mariner who in the late 15th C A.D. sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in search of the Indies.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty between Spain and Portugal defining the Spanish claim on exploration and settlement west of the Cape Verde Islands.
Amerigo Vespucci
Italian explorer who first suggested that South America was a new continent.
Also called 'Indian Corn', maize was one of the staples of the New World.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese sailor (worked for Spain) who first sailed around the world while looking for way around S. America.
Hernando Cortes
Ruthless leader of the conquistadores, destroyed Aztec civilization under Montezuma.
Aztec emperor who became a puppet of Cortes and allowed his civilization to fall.
Feudal-esque system used by the conquistadores, whereby favored officers became privileged landowners who controlled Indian villages or groups of villages.
Bartolomeo de Las Casas
Catholic missionary and Bishop in Mexico who wrote A Brief Relation of the Destruction of the Indies (1552), favoring Indians.
A great farm or ranch.
Council of the Indies
Arm of Spanish government in charge of extending central control over the Americas.
Spanish borderlands
Area of the southern United States formerly claimed by Spain.
Juan Ponce de Leon
Governor of Puerto Rico, and first known explorer of Florida.
St. Augustine
Spanish outpost in Florida, became first European town in present-day US.
A fort where soldiers who were sent to protect Spanish missions were housed.
Juan de Onate
Brutal New Mexico governor ousted by Pope's Rebellion.
Pope (Indian leader)
Pueblo leader who organized a rebellion, which resulted in driving the Spaniards out of New Mexico.
Pueblo Revolt
AKA Pope's Rebellion, most effective native resistance against Mexican colonization.
Martin Luther
German monk who protested abuses in the Catholic church by posing his 'Ninety-five Theses.' Founder of the Lutheran church.
Ninety-five Theses
Martin Luther's criticisms of the Catholic church arguing against indulgences and for a direct relationship to God.
"Stern Protestantism" founded by John Calvin, based on the doctrine of predestination and "the elect".
Defender of the Faith
Title given by the pope to England's Henry VIII prior to England's break from the Catholic church.
Church of England
The Anglican church, which unites church and state under the monarchy.
Francis Drake
English privateer who led British fleet against the Spanish Armada.
Heavy ship used by the Spanish Armada.
Sir Walter Raleigh
English founder of Roanoke, the lost colony.
common law
English tradition of basing laws on judicial precedents, designed to limit arbitrary noble power.
law of primogeniture
English law that gave the birthright of inheritance to the oldest son.
joint stock companies
Company owned by multiple shareholders, who share both the risks and rewards. Some of the largest were granted royal charters that gave them land monopolies.
enclosure movement
Policy to fence off farmlands for more efficient grazing, displaced peasants.
divine right
Theory promoted by James I of England, by which monarchs answered only to God for their actions.
Oliver Cromwell
Took over after unpopular Catholic Charles I was deposed.
Ruled Britain like military dictator, arbitrary policies ignored the colonies.
The Restoration
1660, the British monarchy was restored under Charles II.
Glorious Revolution
Parliament freed itself from Catholic James II's control by replacing him with his cousin Mary and her husband William of Orange.
Toleration Act of 1689
Extended a degree of freedom of worship to all Christians except Catholics and Unitarians, but dissenters still had few political rights.
Intended as the first permanent British colony, settled in 1606 on the banks of the James River in Virginia.
Charismatic chief of numerous Algonquian-speaking towns in eastern Virginia, interacted with Jamestown.
John Smith
Instrumental leader in settlement of Jamestown + survival of first years of hardship by imposing strict discipline.
headright policy
Virginia Company gave 50 acres to shareholding settlers + 50 more for anyone they brought with them.
Sir William Berkeley
Elitist Governor of Virginia, appointed by Charles I.
Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon led frontier farmers against Gov. Berkeley, who wanted to fortify frontier instead of invade Indian lands.
King Philip's War
Puritans executed 3 Wompanoags, causing Indian counterattack on Mass. that was repelled.
Tuscarora/Yamasee War
British allied with Yamasee and others to quell Tuscarora attacks, then pushed out/enslaved weakened Yamasee.
proprietary colony
Colony owned by an individual, rather than a joint-stock company.
AKA Pilgrims, rigorously devout Puritans who had severed all ties with the Church of England.
Mayflower Compact
Formal agreement made by 41 Pilgrim leaders prior to landing at Plymouth to abide by laws of their own devising.
William Bradford
Leader of the Mayflower Pilgrims and Governor of the Plymouth colony.
Congregationalists who settled New England in search of religious freedom (for themselves) and a strictly religious community.
John Winthrop
Puritan leader and Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, sought to build a "city on a hill."
Roger Williams
Dissenter vs. Winthrop, formed Rhode Island colony based on separation of church + state, INDIVIDUAL covenant with God.
Anne Hutchinson
Female Boston dissenter who was banished from Mass. Bay.
William Penn
Established Pennsylvania colony as Quaker settlement, encouraged new immigrants via pacifism and tolerance.
slash and burn
Technique used by New England Indians to flatten dense forests into fields or hunting grounds.
Pequot War
Mass. Bay + Plymouth burned down Pequot village, defeated counterattack, and pushed Indians out of their land.
Maryland Toleration Act
Lord Baltimore's Maryland promised religious toleration to Puritans.
matrilineal descent
System found in Southeastern Indian nations, in which authority and property descended through the maternal line.
New Netherland
Dutch colony conquered by the English to become four new colonies New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.
indentured servant
Cheap labor system, colonists brought workers who signed 5-7 year contracts in exchange for passage and eventual freedom.
sex ratio
Ratio of women to men in the early American colonies, typically 2 or 3 men for every woman.
"invisible" charges
Various British tariffs/expenses imposed on Southern traders to offset unfavorable balance of trade.
triangular trade
Means by which exports to one country or colony provided the means for imports from another country or colony.
promissory note
Used in lieu of hard currency, an “I.O.U.” issued by colonists and colonial treasuries as an early form of paper money.
covenant theory
Central to Puritanism – a voluntary union for the common worship of God and for the purposes of government.
John Peter Zenger
New York newspaper publisher who was imprisoned for openly criticizing New York's royal governor.
the Enlightenment
Revolution in thought begun in the seventeenth century that emphasized reason and science over the authority of traditional religion.
heliocentric universe
A sun-centered universe postulated by Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
Isaac Newton
Author of Principia, which founded Enlightenment idea of mathematical, rationally determinable universe.
Followers of Sir Isaac Newton's idea of natural law, reducing God to the position of a remote Creator.
Benjamin Franklin
Boston-born American who epitomized the Enlightenment. A printer by trade, he went on to become a publisher, inventor, and statesman.
Great Awakening
Religious reaction to materialism + the cold, unfeeling Enlightenment. Emphasized piety and renouncing of sin.
Jonathan Edwards
Spread Great Awakening in New England by using fear in his sermons.
George Whitefield
Spellbinding English evangelist who advanced the Great Awakening by touring America and preaching an emotional religion.
Privy Council
The British king's first agency of colonial supervision.
Limitation and exploitation of colonial trade by an imperial power.
enumerated goods
Raw goods like cotton, tobacco, fur, that the Colonies could only ship to England/her colonies.
Dominion of New England
Failed attempt by Andros to consolidate all New England colonies + New York into one.
Sir Edmund Andros
Royal governor of the Dominion of New England.
contract theory of government
Lockean idea that people established governments to protect their natural rights, and could abolish a gov't that denied these ends.
Navigation Acts
Laws passed by England to force colonies to use English workers and goods.
writs of assistance
One of the colonies' main complaints against Britain, the writs allowed unlimited search warrants without cause to look for evidence of smuggling.
admiralty courts
Courts wherein the cases were decided by judges appointed by the governors, rather than by a colonial jury.
Board of Trade
British overseer of all matters pertaining to colonial trade and laws.
salutary neglect
Policy where the Board of Trade became lax in its regulation/enforcement of colonial trade.
Acts to Prevent Frauds and Abuses
England tightens trade laws and gives colonial governors more power.
People of mixed Indian and European ancestry.
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer and governor of New France until his death in 1635.
French settlers of the easternmost areas of Canada.
King William's War
First (1689-97) of four colonial wars between England and France.
Contract for supplying Spanish America with 4,800 slaves granted to the British by Spain.
Albany Congress
Colonial representatives gathered in Albany, NY to discuss defense against French + Indians.
French and Indian War
American front of Seven Years' War, colonists + British vs. French + Indians, British won control of land east of Mississippi.
William Pitt
British administrator who sent soldiers to the colonists and win the French + Indian war.
annus mirabilis
"Miraculous year" 1759, during which Great Britain secured an empire "on which the sun never set."
Treaty of Paris
Ended French + Indian War, France gives Louisiana to Spain, who don't use it, Spain loses Florida, Americans encroach across Mississippi River.
George III
British monarch during last years of British control of colonies, tried to consolidate power over colonies.
Proclamation Line
British decree after French + Indian War to bar colonists from expanding into new land west of Appalachians.
Sugar Act
Parliament's tax designed solely to raise British revenue by taxing colonial products like sugar.
Stamp Act
Parliament forced colonists to buy royal stamps on all publications/contracts, backlash by upper class caused it to be repealed.
Quartering Act
Parliamentary act requiring colonies to house and provision British troops.
virtual representation
Unpopular policy by Grenville that said Parliamentary representatives also represented the colonies.
nonimportation agreement
Colonial boycott of the importation of British products.
Townshend Acts
Parliament suspends New York assembly for defying Quartering Act, creates customs offices + admiralty courts.
John Dickinson
Philadelphia lawyer who said that Parliament had no right to levy taxes solely for revenue.
Samuel Adams
Massachusetts assembly member, founding organizer of the Sons of Liberty, and distant cousin of John Adams.
Sons of Liberty
Secret organizations formed by Samuel Adams, John Hancock, and other radicals in response to the Stamp Act.
Boston Massacre
Clash between British soldiers and a Boston mob protesting Townshend Acts, March 5, 1770, in which five colonists were killed.
Crispus Attucks
Runaway slave killed in the Boston Massacre.
Green Mountain Boys
Group led by Ethan Allen, who fought for the land that became Vermont.
Paxton Boys
Vengeful Pennsylvania frontiersmen who in protest of a perceived lack of frontier protection massacred local Indian tribes.
Groups of backcountry Carolina settlers who protested colonial policies and took their protection into their own hands.
Gaspee Commission
Parliament bypassed courts of Rhode Island after British ship Gaspee was looted by colonists.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees between colonies to organize and mobilize public opinion against British injustices.
Boston Tea Party
Sons of Liberty destroyed shipments of East India company tea to protest Tea Acts, which forced colonists to buy taxed tea from monopoly.
Coercive Acts
AKA Intolerable Acts in response to Tea Party, gave British troops extraterritoriality, quartering in private homes, and set up military gov't.
First Continental Congress
Representatives of a loose confederation of colonies met to call for economic self-sufficiency and armament of defenders.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
First shots of Rev. War, British forced to retreat from attack on colonial ammunition depot, colonial victory.
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Rev. War, pyrrhic victory for British.
Second Continental Congress
Meeting of colonial representatives who adopted Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, and carried out Revolutionary War.
Olive Branch Petition
Written by John Dickinson and adopted by Second Continental Congress, moderate colonial stance pleading for peaceful resolution of issues.
Thomas Paine
Author of Common Sense, which was a huge hit in the colonies: INDEPENDENCE OR BUST.
Thomas Jefferson
Third President of the United States and drafter of the Declaration of Independence.
Declaration of Independence
Document adopted on July 4, 1776, that made the official break with Britain; drafted by a committee of the Second Continental Congress including principal writer Thomas Jefferson.
George Washington
Charismatic American hero of French + Indian war, appointed Commander in Chief by 2nd Cont. Congress.