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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

the term used for lean:

productivity systems. since it focuses on improving productivity and efficiencies.

Satisfied customer expectations

1. performance

2. features

3. conformance

4. warranty

5. sustainability


a methodology that emphasizes the minimization of activities that do not add value to the customer.

previously termed Just In Time.


a term coined to describe management approaches to quality management and customer satisfaction.

Requirements customers have of their suppliers

- high quality level

- high flecibility ot change such things as volume, specifications, and delivery

- high service level

- short lead time

- low variability in meeting targets

- low cost


Quality Function Development. a methodology designed to ensure that all the major requirements of the customer are identified and met or exceeded. it is used to capture the voice of the customer as an input to the technical requirements for product design. uses the house of quality- see 9-14 (a structured process that relates customer-defined attributes to the products technical features needed to support and generate these attributes)

6 steps to the House of Quality/QFD

1. identify customer requirements

2. identify supporting technical signed requirements

3. compare the customer requirements to the technical design requirements and assign relationship ratings

4. assign importance to the customer requirements

5. evaluate competitors

6. identify technical features to be deployed in the final design of the product

house of toyota

See visual on 9-16. 5 parts.

1. the roof- any activity that does not add value is considered waste

2. pillars:

- JIT: Takt time is the heartbeat of any lean system- it is the rate of customer demand.

- Jidoka: employees are empowered to stop the manufacturing line in process if defects occur

3. the base- operational stability

4. the center- instill culture of continuous improvement

Lean Focus=

Eliminate waste

Categories of Waste/ non-value added activity

1. process- uneeded steps to produce work

2. movement/transportation- proving products unecessisarily

3. methods/motion- wasted time by operators

4. product defects- products/service that do not meet specs

5. waiting time- queuing delays

6. overproduction- making more product than required

7. excess inventory- holding stock not required to fulfill customer orders

8. unused people skills- waste of knowledge or capabilities

Benefits of cellular layout

(which is contains workstations or equipment grouped into product families, or products that share characteristics and processes). work cells result in:

1. reduced queue

2. simplified production activity control

3. reduced floor space and walking

4. reduced material movement

5. immediate feedback.

these things lead to: greater production flexibility; smaller lot sizes; improved quality

TPM APICS defintion

Preventive manintenance plus continuing efforts to adapt, modify and refine equipment to increase flexibility, reduce material handling and promot continuous flows.

Continuous improvement...

1. improves productivity

2. eliminates waste

3. involves teams


Where workers are allows to stop the production line if defects occur. first time right. employee empowerment.

Lean Tools and techniques

1. Value stream mapping- like what we did in Maloneys class.

2. Heijunka- production leveling to match the rate of end product sales.

3. five S's- create well ordered workplace. sort, simplify, scrub, standardize, sustain.

4. Hoshin planning- lean manufacturing version of strategic planning.

see page 9-33 for more info.


plan do check action.

Costs of controlling quality

1. Prevention costs- like design improvements,statistical process control, and so on.

2. Appraisal costs- costs of checking andauditing quality. Like inspections, audits etc.

Quality control tools:

1. Flowchart

2. Cause and effect (aka fishbone)

3. Control charts- like X bar and R chart. Thesetwo track the center and spread of the data. The charts have upper and lowercontrol limits (UCL and LCL)

4. Check sheet- used to summarize tally count ofevent occurrences

5. Pareto- graphical tool for ranking causes frommost signifigicant to least signifigant. 6. Scatter diagram- used to analyze therelationship between two variables


Statistical Process Control

Six Sigma- Major concepts/ is built on:

1. It is important to understand what the customerwants

2. Variation causes defect

3. The output of a process is a function of itsinputs.

Lean Six sigma

1. Process improvement

2. Problem solving


99.999percent.3 to 4 sigma is 93.3 to 99.4 percent.

Causesof Variation:

1. Special Cause- (assignable) variations outsideof natural/ historial variations. Removal helps stabilize a process. Likeoperator error or broken equipment.

2. Common cause- (chance) inherent in the process.Occur naturally. Like poor process design or poor working condition.

SixSigma DMAIC

1. Define

2. Measure

3. Analyze

4. Improve

5. Control


systematicmethod by which organizations compare their performance to a best in classorganization

Steps to benchmarking

1. Select the process to benchmark

2. Identify an org that is best in class for thatprocess

3. Study the benchmark org

4. Analyze the data. Determine differences.