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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
25. Competition, Predation, Parasitism, Mutualism and Commensalism
A. members of 2 more species interact to gain resources
B. Member of 1 species feeds on another
C. organism feeds on body of another
D. interaction that benefits both
E. benefits one, unaffected the other
26. Interspecific and Intraspecific competition
inter- between different species
intra- between same
27. What does the competitive exclusion principle state?
one species will be successful and the other will die out
28. what are some ways that prey defend themselves against predators?
camouflage, chemical warfare, mimicry, deceptive looks
29. Define coevolution
when populations of 2 different species interact over long periods of time and changes the gene pool of one can lead to the change in another
30. What is resource partioning? How does it reduce competition with other species for resources?
A. 2 species involve in competition, nat. selection may favor changes in one or both
B. It uses shared resources at different time places and ways Ex: warblers
31. What are 3 ways organisms are distributed in their environment? Why might some organisms live in clumps? What advantages might uniform dispersion provide?
A.clumps, uniform dispersion, randoms disperson
B. clumps increase hunting effectivity and spreads work of protecting for young. Uniform is usually in places of strict competition and can stand their ground so none effects. 1
32. Compare immigration and emigration
Immigration causes populations to move to and area and increases and Emigration populations leave and decrease
33. What are the 3 age structure groupings? what will happen to populations if most individuals are in the pre-reproductive and reproductive stages?
Pre= 0-14
Post= 35-88+
There will be alot of babies and population increase.
34. What is the intrinsic rate of increase? (r)
Rate at which a population would grow if it had unlimited resources
35. What is a limiting factor? give some examples of factors that may limit a population in size
Things you may run out of and regulate populations
Ex: light, water space, nutrients
36. Define carrying capacity (K)
Max population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely without degrading the habitat
37. Logistic and Exponential population graphs
Logistic= stays relatively near the carrying capacity
Exponential= Goes over CC and then crashes
38. What might happen to a population if they exceed K?
Population can crash
39. Species use different reproductive patterns to ensure their survival. Compare and recognize examples of R and K strategists.
K= large numbers of small offspring, no parental care, high infant mortality
r= small # of large, parental care and low infant mortality
40. Analyze survivorship curves. Be able to make predictions about the life-history strategies of species
refer to bottom graph
41. Density-dependent and density-independent population controls
DD= biotic factors such as predation, heightens with more people
DI= abitotic such as weather and pollution
42. Founder Effect
Demographic Bottleneck
A- Few individuals in a population colonize new habitat that is geographically isolated from other member, face lower genetic diversity and may endanger population's stability
B- when a catastrophe occurs and only a few individuals survive. Low diversity and increase diseases
42.Genetic Drift
C. Random change in gene pool leads to unequal reproductive success, change frequencies of genes in the gene pool
D. Individuals in a small pop will mate with eachother, usually a dem bottleneck has occured
43.Stable, Cyclic, Irruptive and Irregular populaiton. What pattern to predator/prey populations generally exhibit?
A- fluctuate slightly
B-top down or bottom up
C- explode then crash to stable
D- chaos or drastic weather change
44. Primary and Secondary Succession
P- without soil. lichen and moss
S- with soil
45. Predict stages of succession
lichens/moss= early succession
herbs/grasses= midsuccesional
trees= late successional
46. Tolerance, facilitation, inhibition
A. late succesional species unaffectred by plants at earlier stages bc aren't in competition
B. species make an area suitable for species but less suitable for itself
C. Early species hinder growth of other species
47. inertia (persistence) and resilience
A. abiliity of a living systen to surve moderate disturbances and resist being destroyed
B. Ability to bounce back after a disturbance