# Relative Density Of Species

1795 Words 8 Pages
Introduction Distribution of species is an important factor in a community. Depending on the biome, specific factors could have an effect on which species are found in certain areas; for instance, the woody plant distribution of species in a temperate deciduous forest can be affected by a variety of parameters. Temperate deciduous forests themselves are affected greatly by global factors, like climate change, and human agriculture (Reich et al 2002); the woody plants that populate the majority of them are distributed based on things like soil moisture, soil nutrients, soil pH, flooding patterns, elevation, and light (Hosner 1958, Bell 1980, Menges 1983). These factors play into how the species interact and compete with one another, and how …show more content…
Relative density (RD) was equal to N/S x 100, where N was the number of individuals of a species found in a sample, and S was the sum of all N. RD for each species of tree, sapling or shrub, and seedling shows what percentage of the total density that species accounts for. Relative frequency (RF) was equal to F/G x 100, where F was frequency and G was the sum of all F; it shows the how often each species of tree, sapling or shrub, and seedling occurred out of the total occurrences of all species. To determine how much area each species accounted for in the site, basal area was calculated by πd2/4, where d was the measured DBH. From here, Relative basal area (RBA) was determined for trees by K/L x 100, where K was the total basal area for a species and L was the sum of all basal areas of all species. Using RD, RF, and RBA, importance index (II) for each species of tree was found by (RD + RF + RBA)/3. For saplings and shrubs and seedlings, RBA was not calculated, so II was found by (RD + RF)/2. The II takes the number, distribution, and, in the case of trees, size, of a species and displays how significant their role is the community they belong …show more content…
The upland had much lower soil moisture than the lowland did, and although less diversity of species appeared in all three categories for the lowland, more plants in total were observed in the lowland. This has been observed in other studies as well, like in two studies by Bell (1974 and 1980). Lowland species are adept or used to flooding disturbances; therefore, there is less variation in the species found here because, according to the principle of allocation, an organism must choose where to spend its energy. For more species of woody plants found in a temperate deciduous forest, this energy is spent extracting moisture from maybe a less moist soil or reaching towards the sun for light, if that means not having to develop the adaptation to flooding. Cowell (1993) found that upland forests relied on soil moisture, where lowland plants had learned the optimal time for growing and reproducing by embracing the flooding patterns. The floodplain area was closer to the Grand River, allowing the soils to have higher water holding capacity. Considering this, the woody plant species found in the lowland had adaptations that assisted them in surviving the annual floods and anaerobic soils. Plants that choose to adapt to this flooding spend more energy towards the adapting, meaning less energy would be spent towards other life functions like reproduction and photosynthesizing. Although some species adapted to this flooding, the

• ## Murray Darling Basin Case Study

Proposal two helps the environment more and with the less negative effects by using the second proposal it not only helps save and limit water usage but it also helps save the banks of the river, reduce algae growth, reduce salinity, better suit the native wildlife, and grow easier in the conditions. These improvements to the environment in and around the MDB help save the wildlife and help the farmers when farming their crops. Furthermore, this proposal also helps with the economic factors that involve the Basin for example the crops allow for better and longer use of land and water resources and thus more food produced and a better economic return for farmers. This proposal allows the farmers to make more money easily and to also help the environment while doing it. Additionally, the farmers would have a more positive outlook on proposal two as they would feel less despair in drought/flood because of the more resistant plants and crops meaning the drought/flood cycles will have less impact on their daily lives.…

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• ## Biotechnology In Animal Farming

These benefits to the farmer all tend to benefit the consumer because more supply of a product could mean lower food prices. ("News and Analysis on Genetic Engineering, but the Technology Needs Proper Management” 2) GE foods can be altered to have better taste, flavor and nutrition, With a longer shelf life and higher yields, feeding the growing world is easier to obtain. Farmers using GE are also experiencing considerable environmental benefits too. One of the greatest benefits is water quality. Thanks to GE crops, farmers use fewer insecticides and herbicides and that is good for the soil and waterways.…

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• ## Ecological Species Observation Report

Introduction Succession is referred to as changes within an ecological community following a disturbance of a relatively large area (Connell and Slatyer 1977.) Succession is broken down into two main time periods: primary and secondary. Primary succession is classified as the formation of soil and colonization of annual plants over a depleted land. Secondary succession is classified as the colonization and development of perennial plants over an established ecosystem. The process at which succession occurs is so well studied that we can determine what stage of succession an ecosystem is at based on the type of plants present.…

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• ## Abiotic Factors In Agriculture

Abiotic factors are the nonliving components that affect crop production. One important abiotic factor is topography. Topography is defined as the “lay of the land (cropsreview.com). The topography includes earth features such as land elevation, slope, terrain, bodies of water, etc. This topography can play a huge role for plants.…

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• ## Xylem Vessel Length In Woody Plant

If the vessel length were phylogenetically conserved wide difference between closely related plant families would not be present. Majority of the conclusions were supported by the data but there is an alternate conclusion available. It was concluded by the researchers that the plant habit did not affect the vessel length but interpretation of Fig. 4 does not point in that direction. Fig.…

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• ## A Comparison Of The Waitutu Forest Saplings

Problem and Plan My purpose is to see if there is any relationship between the basal diameter (dbd) and the diameter at breast height (dbh) of the Waitutu Forest Sapling trees using information published by Landcare Research NZ and recorded from various measurements of alluvial and marine terraces in the Waitutu Forest between 2001-2008. I have chosen to study this as the relationship between different variables of these saplings is important for conservationists and scientists in their studies of our native forest. The Waitutu Forest houses a number of threatened species of animals and plants. It is important that this forest keeps regenerating to continue to keep these endemic species safe. The saplings are home to these animals and therefore…

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• ## Coffee Is The Cause Of Deforestation

All coffee producers should grow coffee under a canopy of other plants because shade cultivation is much safer and less detrimental to the environment. Shade cultivation also enhances the flavour of the coffee as less agrochemicals are used and it is the traditional way to grow it. Some trees should be left for migrating birds and the only trees that should be removed are ones that cause serious issues or problem for the coffee producers. Doing so will decrease soil erosion, salinity and degradation. It will also increase the biodiversity of the region because more animals will inhabit the plants and the plants filter water and air, storing carbon and restoring soil nutrients.…

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• ## Biodynamic Farming: A Case Study

Biodynamic managed vineyards tend to have a more fertile soil, which in years of adversity increased the vines ability to adapt and thrive (Guzzon, et al., 2015). Biodynamic grapevines tend to spread deeper roots allowing them access to ground water during times of drought (Tippetts, 2012). Tippetts goes on to say that conventionally farmed vines tend to have roots that spread close to the surface. This allows the vine to easily take up nutrients and water applied at the surface (Tippetts, 2012). The ability of the deep rooted biodynamic vine to reach ground water during drought is a distinct advantage for the vineyard manager.…

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• ## Petlad Taluka Case Study

There were three types of quadrat methods such as list quadrat, list-count quadrat and chart quadrat. Out of these three methods we applied list-count quadrat method for phytosociological study. In every study site, we randomly studied 20 quadrats of 100 m × 100 m size for tree species, 30 quadrats of 5 m × 5 m size for shrub species and 50 quadrats of 1 m × 1 m size for herb species. 4.2.1 Quantitative analysis The important quantitative analysis such as density, frequency and abundance of tree, shrub and herb species were determined as per Curtis and McIntosh (1950). Frequency (%) Terms of percentage occurrence indicates the degree of dispersion of individual species in an area.…

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• ## Soil Loss Equation Case Study

The USLE model as described in Equation 1 was used to predict erosion of each 100 m2 cells in this study. A=RxKxLSxCxP [1] Where A, Annual soil loss (in ton ha-1year-1); R is the rainfall erosivity factor (MJ mm ha-1 h-1); K is the soil erodibility factor (t ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1); LS is the slope steepness and length factor…

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