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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Function of nasal epithelium--what type of epithelium?
Moistens, filters, and humidifies air--pseudostratified.
What structures of nose help in circulating air towards epithelium?
Nasal conchae
Four sinuses that drain into the nose:
Frontal sinus, sphenoid sinus, maxillary sinus, and ethmoid sinus.
Connection between nose and eye:
Nasolacrimal duct.
Opening in the nasopharynx:
Eustachian tube.
Tonsil located in the nasopharynx:
Pharyngeal tonsil.
Epithelium in the oropharynx:
Stratified squamous epithelium
Epithelium in the laryngopharynx--passageway for food or air?
Stratified squamous--passageway for both food and air.
How many cartilages are in the larynx?
Single cartilages of the larynx:
Paired cartilages of the larynx:
What is the epiglottis, and what type of tissue composes it?
Elastic cartilage "flap" that folds back over glottis during swallowing to prevent food and other substance to enter trachea.
What causes epiglottis to open and close?
Swallowing causes larynx to elevate so that epiglottis can fold back over glottis.
Which cartilages are vocal cord attached to?
Thyroid and Arytenoid.
What tissue comprises vocal cords?
Elastic fibers and stratified squamous epithelium.
What is the glottis?
The space between the vocal cords.
What are false vocal cords, and where are they located?
The help prevent food from entering trachea and are used to increase abdominal pressure--located above the true vocal cords.
How is sound controlled? Pitch and loudness?
By pushing air through the vibrating vocal cords.

By tautness of the vocal cords and amount of air pushed through vocal cords.
Swelling and inflammation of the voice box often associated with hoarseness and loss of the voice.
Where is the trachea located in relation to esophagus?
Anterior to the esophagus.
Are the right and left bronchi identical in structure?
No, the right is wider and runs more vertically.
Significance of anatomical differences of the two bronchi:
Aspirated objects are frequently found in the right bronchi rather than the left because it runs more vertically.
What do the secondary bronchi supply? How many does each lung have?
They supply a lobe of the lung--the right lung has three, and the left lung has two.
What do the tertiary bronchi supply?
A segment of a lobe of the lung.
What makes the bronchioles so unique?
They have smooth muscle cells for dilation and constriction.
How does the mucosa of the wall of bronchi change moving from primary to tertiary?
The wall becomes thinner.
How does sympathetic nervous system affect the bronchiole?
Causes dilation.
How does adrenaline affect bronchiole?
Dilation of the bronchiole.
How does beta-blocker affect bronchiole?
Causes constriction.
How does parasympathetic nervous system affect bronchiole?
Constricts smooth muscle.
Pathogenesis of asthma
Bronchiole constriction due to smooth muscle contraction/inflammation or blockage--triggered by emotional response, emotions, sports, weather, etc.
Respiratory zone of the lung:
Air exchange (alveolus only)
Conducting zone of the lung:
No air exchange (trachea, bronchi, bronchioles)
What happens in the alveolus?
Air exchange occurs.
Structures that oxygen has to pass through through respiratory membrane:
Simple squamous of alveolus
Basement membrane of alveolus
Basement membrane of capillary
Simple squamous of the capillary
What surrounds the alveoli? Why is that important?
Elastic fibers--allows for expansion (inhalation and exhalation)
Function of alveolar macrophage?
Phagocytize dust and debris (derived from monocytes)
Function of septal cells?
Makes surfactant (reduces surface tension/prevent collapse)
What is the issue with surfactant and newborns?
Alveoli collapses and there is high surface tension due to lack of surfactant in their underdeveloped lungs, so they have difficulty inhaling and exhaling.
How many lobes does the right lung have? The left lung?
3 and 2.
What are the lobes of the right lung called?
Superior, Inferior, and middle lung.
What are the lobes of the left lung called?
Superior and Inferior lobes.
What fissure separates the superior and middle lobes of the right lung?
The horizontal fissure.
What fissure separates the middle and inferior lobes of the right lung?
The oblique fissure.
What fissure separates the superior and inferior lobes of the left lung?
Oblique fissure.
Hilus of the lung
Opening where the pulmonary artery and primary bronchi enter and pulmonary vein exits.
What is the base of the lung? Apex of the lung?
Bottom of lung near inferior lobe/ Top of lung, near superior lobe.
Two blood supplies in the lung:
Pulmonary circulation and Bronchial circulation.
Space between right and left lungs:
What is pleura made of?
Serous membrane (simple squamous and areolar)
What is the parietal pleura attached to? What is found in the pleural cavity?
Inside the rib cage and diaphragm.

What is the key to pressure in the pleural cavity?
Air flows from higher to lower pressure (always negative)
What is the visceral pleura attached to?
The surface of the lung.
What is pleurisy?
Inflammation of the pleura, leads to chest pain.
How many pleural cavities are there?
Two, one around each lung.
Negative intrapleural pressure lost and the lung collapses because of elastic tissue contraction.
Loss of negative pressure causes lungs to ______
Collapsed lung
Three basic processes of respiratory physiology:
Pulmonary ventilation
External respiration
Internal respiration
Pulmonary ventilation
Mechanics of breathing in and out
External Respiration
Exchange of gases between alveoli and capillaries of lung (Happens inside the lungs).
Internal Respiration
Exchange of gases between capillaries and tissues.
Where is the respiratory rate controlled?
Brain stem--pons and medulla oblongata
Term for normal breathing:
Term for faster rate of breathing/Slower rate of breathing?
Tachypnea and Bradypnea.
Term for difficulty breathing:
Increasing volume of the thorax
If the lungs get larger during inspiration, pressure in the lungs _______
Why does air flow into the lungs?
Because air moves from high to low pressure.
When the thorax gets larger, the lungs____
get larger.
The larger the lungs, the ______ the intrapulmonary pressure.
Two ways to make thorax larger:
contracting the diaphragm
contracting the external intercostals
Boyle's Law
By increasing the volume in the thorax, the pressure in the thorax decreases.
Which muscles are used in breathing during respiratory distress?
"accessory muscles": Sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor, scalenes, etc.
Why is it important that the pressure inside the pleural cavity remain negative?
So that visceral pleura will follow parietal pleura
Which nerve innervates the diaphragm? Which plexus is this nerve from?
The phrenic nerve--cervical plexus.
How many phrenic nerves are there? Is it possible to lose function of half the diaphragm?
Two--it is possible because both nerves each supply one half of the diaphragm.
What happens in the lungs when negative pressure in pleural cavity is lost?
Lungs will have tendency to recoil.
Measurement of elasticity of lung (lost with aging).
The higher the compliance, the more ______ the lung.
Expiration--active or passive?
Largely passive--diaphragm relaxes and pushes up, decreasing intrapulmonary volume and increasing pressure, forcing air out of lungs.
Increase in air resistance will greatly affect which part of respiration?
Normal Tidal volume value:
500ml--amount of air normally inhaled/exhaled in one breath.
Expiratory reserve volume--normal value
Normal value around 1200ml
Once normal breath is exhaled, additional amount that can be exhaled.
Inspiratory reserve volume--normal value
3000 ml

Once normal breath is inhaled, additional air that can be taken in.
Vital Capacity--normal value
4700 ml
Total exchangeable air in the lungs

Total lung capacity--normal value
6 liters

VC + Residual volume in the lungs
Residual volume--normal value
around 2300 ml

Air that remains in lungs after maximal exhalation
Forced expiratory volume in one second--4800ml
Minute volume of respiration
Tidal volume X bpm
Alveolar ventilation
Breaths per minute X (TV--Dead air space)
Partial pressure
Each gas in mixture has own pressure proportional to concentration of gas in the mixture.
COPD--how does it lead to emphysema?
Lung diseases that block airflow during exhalation, making breathing difficult--the blocked airflow leads to irreversible damage to the lungs.
How could pulmonary ventilation be affected by an accumulation of pleural fluid in pleural cavity?
Affects ability of lungs to contract and expand effectively.
Two ways that oxygen travels through the blood:
Attached to hemoglobin (97%)
Dissolved in plasma (3%)