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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
two dimensional or flat-scale model of Earth's surface.
specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features.
relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and as a whole.
refers to the physical gap or interval between two objects.
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
science of map-making.
the relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on Earth.
Map Scale
scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map.
divided much of the country into a system of townships and ranges to facilitate.
Land Ordinance of 1785
square 6 miles on each side
north-south lines seperating townships.
Principal Meridians
east-west lines
Base lines
1 mile by 1 mile
computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.
GIS (Geographic Information System)
the acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting Earth or from other long distance methods.
Remote Sensing
a system that determines accurately the precise position of something on Earth.
GPS (Global Positioning System)
the position that something occupies on Earth's surface.
name given to a place on Earth.
physical character of a place.
location of a place relative to other places.
arc drawn between the North and South poles.
circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
numbering system used to indicate the location of a meridian.
meridian that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich ,England at 0 degrees longitude.
Prime meridian
numbering system used to indicate the location of a parallel.
international agreement designated the time at the prime meridian.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Universal Time (UT)
180 degree longitude
International Date line
combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation.
Cultural Landscape
contemporary cultural landscape approach in geography.
Regional studies
also called a uniform region or homogenous region, is an area within everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics.
Formal region
also called a nodal region, is an area organized around a node or focal point.
Functional region
also called perceptual region, is a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
Vernacular region
an internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface
Mental Map
the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
geographic study of human-environment relationships.
Cultural Ecology
applying laws from the natural sciences to understanding relationships between the physical environment and human actions.
Environmental determinism
physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment.
substances that are useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
a piece of land that is created by draining water from an area.
force of process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope.
conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries.
Trasnational corporation
arrangement of a feature
total number of objects in an area.
Arithmetic density
number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture.
Physiological density
extent of a features spread over space
geometric arrangement of objects in space
number of farmers per unit of farmland
Agricultural density
the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place.
space-time compression
contact diminished with increasing distance and eventually disappears
Distance decay
process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time
place where innovation originates
the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Relocation diffusion
spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process.
Expansion diffusion
spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places.
Hierarchical diffusion
rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population.
Contagious diffusion
spread of an underlying principle
Stimulus diffusion
increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and peripheral regions that results from the globilization of the economy.
Uneven Development
scientific study of population characteristics
portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
total # of people divided by total land area.
Arithmetic density
number of people supported by a unit area of arable land.
Physiological density
ratio of # of farmers to the amount of arable land
Agricultural density
total # of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in society
Crude Birth Rate CBR
total # of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in society
Crude Death Rate CDR
percentage by which a population grows in a year
Natural increase rate NIR
#'s of years needed to double a population
Doubling Time
measures the number of births in a society
Total Fertility rate TFR
annual number of deaths in infants under one year of age, compared with total live births.
Infant Mortality Rate IMR
measures the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
Life expectancy
process of change in a societys population.
Demographic transition
time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and athering
Agriculutural revolution
began in England in the late eighteenth century and spread to the European continent and North America during the ninteenth century
INdustrial revolution
when medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to the less developed countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Medical revolution
when crude birth rate declines to the point where it equals the crude death rate, and the natural increase approached zero.
Zero Population growth ZPG
a country's population can be displayed by age and gender on this bar graph
Population pyramid
number of people who are too young, or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years.
Dependency ratio
the number of males per hunded females in the population
Sex ratio
permanent move to a new location
migration FROM a location
migration TO a location
the difference between the # of immigrants and the number of emigrants.
net migration
a more general term covering all types of movements from one place to another
types of short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis, such as daily monthly, or annually.
induces people to move out of their present location
Push factor
induces people to move into a new location
Pull factor
people who have been forced to migrate from their home and cant return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
area subject to flooding during a specific number of years, based on historical trends.
an environemtnal or cultural feature that hinders migration
Intervening obstacles
permanent movement from one country to another
International migration
permanent movement within the same country
internal migration
movement from one region of a country to another
interregional migration
implies that the migrant has chosen to move for economic improvement
voluntary migration
means that the migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors.
forced migration
consists of changes in a society comparable to those in demographic transition
migration transition
ones who enter without proper documents
undocumented immigrants
the migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
chain migration
max limits on the # of people who could immigrate to the US from each country during a one-year period
a large-scale emigration by talented people
Brain drain
citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle
Guest Workers
a repetitive act that a particular individual performs, such as wearing jeans to class every day
repetitive act of a geoup, performed to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group
traditionally practice primarily by small, homogenous groups living in isolated rural areas.
folk culture
found in large, heterogenous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
Popular culture
restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning
system of written communication
Literary tradition
one used by the government for laws, reports, and public objects.
official language
a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
a dialect that is well established and widely recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, and education, and mass communication
standard language
commonly used by politicians, broadcastors, and actors
British received pronunciation.
every word that isnt used nationally has some geographic extent within the country and therefore has boundaries
collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago
language branch
collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
language group
the latin that people in the provinces learned
Vulgar latin
represent ideas or concepts
once in use
extinct languages
a language of international communication such as english
lingua franca
a group that learns english or another lingua franca may learn a simplified form
Pidgin language
a combination of ebony and phonics
a combination of spanish and english
a large and fundamental division within a religion
division of a branch that units a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
belief that there is only on God
worship of many gods
individuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion
word for a follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times
city neighborhood set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews
journey for religious purposes to a place considered sacred
set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe
special significance in some ethnic religions
basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church
interaction among communities
Autonomous religions
literal interpretation and a strict and intense adherence to basic principles of a religion
class of distinct heriditary order into which a Hindu was assigned according to religionus law
identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth.
identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor
efficient triangular trading patterm
triangular slave trade
works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops
belief that a race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial difference produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism
real estate agents convinced white homeowners living near a black area to sell their houses at lower prices, preying on their fears that black families would soon move into the neighborhood and cause property values to decline.
physical seperation of different races into different geographics areas
identity with a group of people with shared traits
the concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
loyalty and devotion to a nationality
an attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Centripetal force
a state that contains more than one ethnicity
Multi-ethnic state
contains 2 ethnic groups with traditions of self determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
Multi-national states
a process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogenous region
Ethnic cleansing
used to descrive a small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into 1 or more stable states.
process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities