Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/100

Click to flip

100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ukraine, formerly one of the Soviet republics, had its own local unit of government, yet the Soviet Union was not considered a federal system. This is because in the former Soviet Union,
local governments were not independent of the central government.
Woodrow Wilson held that the question of the relationship between the national and state governments
could not be answered by a single generation.
Which of the following countries does not have a federal system of government?
Great Britain
At a time when other Western nations were debating whether government ought to provide pensions or regulate business, the question in the United States was
whether the national government had the right to do these things.
Which of the following systems of government would be most likely to appeal to those in the United States who wish to implement liberal policies in the nation but who encounter resistance from conservative state legislature
Unitary
A unitary form of government is most likely to appear preferable in the view of
liberal U.S. senators facing conservative state legislatures.
The cost of political participation to the average U.S. citizen is less than that to the average French citizen because, in the United States,
more small, political constituencies are found than in France.
For the Founders, federalism was a device to
protect liberty.
Madison's description of federalism in Federalist 46 suggests there should be little concern over conflicts between the federal and state governments because
they are different agents with different powers.
The Founders did not include in the U.S. Constitution an explicit statement of state powers but added it later in the
Tenth Amendment
Just what sort of commerce Congress could regulate between the states was not spelled out in the U.S. Constitution because
no consensus existed.
Which statement best summarizes Madison's view of federalism
He was first an ardent supporter of national supremacy, then of state's rights
The Civil War settled one part of the issue of national supremacy versus states' rights, namely, that
the national government derives its sovereignty from the people.
The McCulloch vs. Maryland
National government supremacy over the states.
The basic assumption of Marshall's opinion in the McCulloch case was that the Constitution
was established by the people.
During the battle over slavery, the case for nullification was forcefully presented by
John C. Calhoun
The doctrine of dual federalism grew out of a protracted debate on the subject of
commerce.
According to the text, the Supreme Court has generally excluded ___ from many of the restrictions addressed in commerce clause cases.
baseball players
The text concludes that it would be a mistake to conclude that the doctrine of federalism is
entirely dead.
Under their police powers, states can enact and enforce all of the following except:
The regulation of interstate commerce
This procedure in effect in about one-third of the states permits voters to remove an elected official from office.
Recall
According to the text, the grant-in-aid system grew rapidly because it helped state and local officials resolve what dilemma?
How to get federal money into state hands without violating the U.S. Constitution.
THe first form of grant-in-aid to the states made by the federal government to the state governments was that of
land grants.
Federal officials' perceptions of national needs came to dominate the allocation of federal grants in the
1960s and 1970s
In the 1960s and 1970s, federal grants to states were increasingly based on
what federal officials perceived to be national needs.
The term intergovernmental lobby is used in the text to refer to lobbying activities by
state and local officials at the national government.
A categorical grant is a transfer of federal funds designed for
specific purposes.
BLock grants were designed to remedy a common criticism of categorical grants, namely,
the difficulty of adapting categorical grants to local needs.
According to the text, both revenue sharing and block grants have enjoyed only marginal success, in part because
the federal government steadily increased the number of strings attached to such grants.
Political maneuvering and lobbying by local officials will probably be greatest when what type of federal money is involved?
A categorical grant
What types of federal funds are most likely to be critical for an agency that depends on the federal government for its existence
Categorical grants
The type of locally distributed federal money that would be most affected by changes in population and distribution formulas is
revenue sharing.
The type of locally distributed federal money that would be most affected by changes in population and distribution formulas is
revenue sharing.
The difference between a mandate and a condition of aid is that
with a mandate it makes no difference who is paying the costs of a program.
One of the problems the text mentions in connection with the administration of the Americans with Disabilities Act is
the absence of a clear-cut definition of "equal access"
For states to qualify for certain federal highway funds, tehy must allow drivers to make a legal right-hand turn after stopping at a red light. This requirement by the federal government is known as a
pro bono requirement
A result of the Reagan-era block grants and budge cuts was
higher service levels than otherwise would have been the case.
As strong as support for reform of AFDC may have been, the complexities of the issue were somewhat highlighted by the fact that
President Clinton vetoed two bills that would have cut it back.
Devolution was an old idea but it required a new vitality because ___ was/were leading the effort.
the president
The 104th Congress (1994-6) block granted the following federal aid program:
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
From 1996, when the federal welfare reform law took place, to 2002, the nation's welfare case load has declined by ___%.
10
The text suggest relatively poor citizens are more likely to suggest ___ give(s) them more for their money.
the federal government
Devolution:
The effort to transfer responsibility for many public programs and services from the federal government to the states.
Block Grants:
Money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington.
Sovereignty:
Supreme or ultimate political authority
Unitary System:
One in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government
Confederation or Confederal System:
One in which the states are sovereign and the national government is allowed to do only that which the states permit.
Federal system:
One in which sovereignty is shared, so that in some matters the national government is supreme and in other matters the states are supreme.
Federal Regime:
One in which local units of government have a specially protected existence and can make some final decisions over some governmental activities.
"necessary and proper" clause:
Section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to its duties and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it (enumerated) by the Constitution.
Nullification:
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution
Dual Federalism:
Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept separate.
Police Power:
State power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals.
Initiative:
Process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot.
Referendum:
Procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature.
Recall:
Procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office.
Grants-in-Aid
Money given by the national government to the states.
Categorical Grants:
Federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport.
Revenue Sharing:
Federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states.
Conditions of Aid:
Terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds.
Mandates:
Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants.
According to the text, all of the following nations have federal systems except:
Great Britain.
The Supremacy Clause was first invoked in which Supreme Court case?
McCulloch vs. Maryland
Which doctrine held that though the national government was supreme in its sphere, the states were equally supreme in theirs?
Dual Federalism
Which document(s) argued states had the right to "nullify" federal laws that violated the Constitution?
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Under the doctrine of dual federalism:
Congress could regulate interstate commerce.
Which type of grant is for one specific purpose?
Categorical Grant
A(n) ___ is a procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office.
recall
A(n) ___ is a procedure whereby voters can place legislative measures directly on the ballot by nonstaining signatures on petitions.
Initiative
A(n) ___ is a procedure whereby voters have the chance to reject measures adopted by legislatures.
Referendum
Operational block grants can be used for such purposes an:
running state child care programs.
The increased role of nonprofit organizations and private groups in policy implementation is referred to as:
third-order devolution
The old Aid to Families to Dependent Children program is an example of a(n) ___ grant.
Entitlement
Federalism was one device whereby personal liberty was to be protected.
True
At the time of the Constitutional Convention, federalism was an entirely new plan for which no historical precedent existed.
True
The text suggests the Tenth Amendment has rarely had much practical significance.
True
The Civil War was fought, in part, over the issue of national supremacy versus state's rights.
True
One of the attractive features of federal grant money in aid was that it was viewed as "free money."
True
One generally recognized state power is the police power.
True
Until the 1960s, most federal grants-in-aid were conceived by or in cooperation with the states and were designed to server essentially state purposes.
True
Most mandates concern civil rights and environmental protection.
True
By far the most important restrictions on state action are the conditions attached to the grants the states receive.
True
Alexis de Tocqueville
United States had fertile soil which roots could grow, which the people could use the land to make a living.
How do Spaniards differ?
They eat dinner at 10:00 PM
How do Italians differ?
THey close their shops for three hours in the middle of the day
How do Germans differ?
They refer to people by their last name
How do Japanese differ?
They value working together in groups
How do Americans view Liberty?
Americans are preoccupied with their rights
How do Americans view Equality?
Americans believe everybody should have an equal vote and an equal chance to participate and succeed
How do Americans view Democracy?
Americans think government officials should be accountable to the people
How do Americans view Civic Duty?
Americans generally feel people ought to take community affairs seriously and help out when they can
How do Americans view Individual Responsibility?
Americans view individuals are responsible for their own actions and well-being
Do Americans agree with: "teaching children that all people are really equal recognizes that all people are equally worthy and deserve equal treatment."
Yes
How do we know that the American people share these beliefs?
We can't for sure, but we can assume based on what Americans read, speeches they hear, slogans they respond to
If values are important to Americans, how can we explain the existence in our society of behavior that is obviously inconsistent with them?
People act contrary to their personal beliefs,
How did Gunnar Myrdal view society?
An American dilemma resulting from the conflict between the believe in equality of opportunity and American behavior denying African Americans full citizenship
If there is agreement among Americans on certain political values, why has there been so much political conflict in our history?
Conflict can occur over specific policies even among those who share common beliefs.
Is there no abstract value that would settle the question of whether steelworkers ought to organize unions?
no
What did states go to war over in 1861?
The rights to slaves versus the rights of slave owners
What is the most frequently encountered evidence that Americans believe themselves bound by common values and common hopes?
Term 'Americanism' and 'American way of life'