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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Endocrine Reflexes?
Functional counterparts of neural reflexes, and in most cases, are controlled by negative feedback mechanisms
What do Endocrine Reflexes trigger?
Humoral, Hormonal, and Neural stimuli
What is Humoral stimuli?
changes in composition of extracellular fluid
What is Hormonal stimuli?
arrival or removal of specific hormone
What is Neural stimuli?
arrival of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions
How many hormones are involved in a Simple Endocrine Reflex?
only one!
What do Simple Endocrine Reflexes control?
hormone secretion by the heart, pancreas, parathyroid gland, and digestive tract
What does a Complex Endocrine Reflex involve?
1 or more intermediary steps and 2 or more hormones
What does the Hypothalamus do?
Integrates activities of nervous and endocrine systems in 3 ways
In what 3 ways does the Hypothalamus work?
1. it secretes regulatory hormones,
2. acts as an endocrine organ
3. and contains autonomic centers
Neuroendocrine Reflexes have pathways that include what 2 types of components?
neural and endocrine
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones released in sudden bursts are called?
The frequency of pulses varies what?
the response of target cells
What is another name for the Pituitary Gland?
Where is the Pituitary Gland located?
It lies within sella turcica and hangs inferior to hypothalamus
How is the Pituitary Gland connected to the hypothalamus?
by the infundibulum
How many important hormones does the Pituitary Gland release?
What is another name for the Anterior Lobe of the pituitary gland?
What are the names of the three parts that make up the Anterior Lobe?
1. pars distalis
2. pars intermedia
3. pars tuberalis
What is the Median Eminence?
the swelling near attachmen of the infundibulum
What is the Median Eminence for?
It is where the hypothalamic neurons release regulatory factors, into interstitial fluids through fenestrated capillaries
What are the Portal Vessels?
blood vessels that link 2 capillary networks
The Portal Vessels and the 2 capillary networks they attach to is called?
portal system
What is the job of the Hypophyseal Portal System?
it ensures that regulatory factors reach intended target cells before entering general circulation
What are the 2 Classes of Hypothalamic Regulatory Hormones?
Releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones
What do the Releasing Hormones (RH) do?
Stimulate synthesis and secretion of 1 or more hormones at anterior lobe
What do the Inhibiting Hormones (IH) do?
The opposite of RH: they prevent synthesis and secretion of hormones from anterior lobe
What does the Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) do?
Triggers release of thyroid hormones
The Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) does what?
Stimulates release of steroid hormones by adrenal cortex
What does the Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) target?
It targets cells that produce glucocorticoids
What are Gonadotropins?
Follicle-stimulating hormones and Luteinizing hormones
What do Gonadotropins do?
Regulate activities of gonads (testes, ovaries)
How does the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) affect females?
It stimulates follicle development and estrogen secretion
How does the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) affect males?
it stimulates sustentacular cells in males by promoting physical maturation of sperm
Production of the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is inhibited by inhibin. What is inhibin?
a peptide hormone released by testes and ovaries
What does the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) do in both males and females?
It causes ovulation and progestin production in females; and causes androgen production in males
What is FSH and LH Production stimulated by?
the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamus
What does Prolactin (PRL) do?
it stimulates the development of mammary glands and milk production; and stimulates PIH release (its inhibitor)
What inhibits production of Prolactin (PRL)?
the prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
What does the Growth Hormone (GH) do?
It stimulates cell growth and replication
Production of the Growth Hormone (GH) is regulated by?
growth hormone–releasing hormone (GH–RH) and growth hormone–inhibiting hormone (GH–IH)
What does the Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH) do? And what inhibits it?
It stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin;
And it is Inhibited by dopamine
What is another name for the Posterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland?
What does the Posterior Lobe produce?
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin (OT)
What does the Antidiuretic Hormone do?
it decreases the amount of water lost at kidneys and elevates blood pressure
The releasing of the Antidiuretic Hormone is inhibited by what?
What does Oxytocin do?
It stimulates contractile cells in mammary glands and the smooth muscles in the uterus
Secretion and milk ejection are part of the _________ reflex?
What is Hypogonadism?
Low production of gonadotropins
What are the effects of Hypogonadism for both children and adults?
- children will not undergo sexual maturation
- adults cannot produce functional sperm or oocytes
What is the Diabetogenic Effect?
Elevation of blood glucose levels by GH
What is Diabetes Insipidus and what does it do?
Inadequate amounts of ADH released from posterior lobe; and it impairs water conservation at kidneys
Where is the Thyroid Gland located?
It lies anterior to thyroid cartilage of larynx
The Thyroid Gland consists of 2 lobes connected by what?
What are Thyroid Follicles?
Hollow spheres lined by cuboidal epithelium
What do Thyroid Follicles surround?
follicle cavity
What is a follicle cavity filled with?
Thyroid Follicles are surrounded by network of capillaries that do what?
- deliver nutrients and regulatory hormones
- and accept secretory products and metabolic wastes
What is Thyroglobulin and what does its molecules contain?
It is a globular protein and its molecules contain the amino acid tyrosine
Thyroglobulin is synthesized by what?
follicle cells
What is Thyroglobulin secreted into?
colloid of thyroid follicles