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42 Cards in this Set

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What Culture is NOT
Not something you can touch
Not limited to some people only
Culture is not static
What IS Culture?
An ordered system of beliefs, expressive symbols, values, and knowledge in terms of which groups of individuals define their world, express their feelings, make their judgments, and cope with their environments.
Ideas and behaviors that are learned and transmitted. Nongenetic means of adaptation (Park)
Characteristics of Culture
Learned
Shared
Symbolically Mediated
Abstract
Culture is Learned
Enculturation – the process through which individuals become cultural beings.
Begins at birth.
Culture is an Abstraction
It’s not something we can touch or see
We take many individual observations abstract from them
Ethnocentrism-
the conviction that one’s own culture and one’s own values should be used as a basis for judging others.
Belief that the things we do are the “natural” and “best” ways
Cultural Relativism-
anthropologists strive for a suspension of one’s own values. We don’t attempt to impose our values on others, but want to see things within the local context.
Culture _________ The Same as Society
is not
Society -
an interacting group of individuals
Social structure -
the pattern or network of interaction of individuals and groups
Social structure and culture are interrelated in the
sociocultural system
Patterns of social structure?
Status
Role
Social Boundaries
3
Socioculture system is
the totality of a group’s way of life
Common Themes to All Sociocultural Systems
Systems
Change
Power
Gender
Ideal vs. Real
World View
6
A group’s way of life can be seen as_________________________ which are_______________________
a group of interrelated systems.

not necessarily harmonious
Power –
a quality or condition that permits one individual or group to control the behavioral options of another person or group
World View
A group’s view of
the universe and their place in it.
This includes the role of the supernatural, view of the role with the natural environment, what is proper with other groups, why things happen, etc.
World View
The collective interpretation
of and response to the natural and cultural environments in which a group of people lives.
Their assumptions about those environments and values derived from those assumptions (Park)
Revolution
These are social movements designed to return to a Golden Age of the past or to create a more satisfying way of life.
The Religion of Handsome Lake
Life at the Seneca reservation of the Iroquois is bad in 1799
Religion to revitalize the Seneca culture and way of life
5- main morals
5- main morals:
Temperance
Peace and social unity
Pro-acculturation
Preservation of tribal lands
Domestic morality
Band Societies
basic unit associated w/ hunting & gathering
pygmies, kung san
must be smaller to not outstrip environment
sizes change seasonally & depending on needs:
pygmies come together to pick berries, split up at other times
egalitarian
sole reliance on hunting &gathering-equally rely on each other
Societies kin based not class based
rules & norms maintained by kin groups
Division of labor on gender & age-simple
no war
cooperation is key to survival
share resources between bands
no need for leader-survival depends on all-make decisions jointly
complete dependence on natural environment
-all material goods depended on comes from natural bed
-may have nonnecessities from outside
Mbuti Chair
clothing from bark
associated with?
examples of?
size?
social structure?
kin or class based?
Rules maintiained by?
division of labor?
goods come from?
Tribes
Yano mano
kuelka
Larger & more sendentary; 200-2000 people
-economic production based on horticulture or pastoralism
-producing food-can go beyond limits of natural environments
-lets them be more sedentary
-might move to regenerate soil
Fairly egalitarian
-still kin based
-may be a few power differences; one person may have a few more animals than another
They do have a “Big Man”-achieved-people do not have to listen to them-‘mover & shaker”-charasmatic, people listen to them voluntarily
Frequent Warfare-fight over land
No government-several villages
Little specialization-everybody can do everything
Examples?
Size?
Economic productions based on?
social structure?
kin or class?
power?
Chiefdoms
Larger & more sedentary
Usually intensive agriculture-same plot of land over & over
-as sedentary produce more food, larger population, as more food & pop.-social stratification comes as more specialized jobs are needed.
Chief-ascribed-born into-can give orders-power is fragile because society is still kinship based-fulltime job-stand out, everyone knows who he is
Redistribution networks
Frequent warfare-more land, more food, more people, more land etc…
States
much larger population
completely sedentary-cannot just move thousands or millions of people
2 types-nonindustrial based on intensive agriculture-labor intensive-industrial economic production based on the use of machines
Start to see cities
High degree of stratification & specialization-more occupation & variation than ever before
Political power-few control the many-growth of military that can enforce the rules
Not kin based-Class based-fundamental difference in source of power and who is controlling what-much more inequality
Market Economy-cash & supply & demand
Most complex type of society yet-not necessarily better
Non-industrial states
South Mexico
Modern Industrial States
Japan-USA
2 Critical Junctures in SC Evolution
Food Production & the Evolution of the state
3 Facets of economics
Production
consumption
distribution
3 primary types of distribution
Money market
Reciprocity
Redistribution
Money market
exchange or transaction in which prices are subject to supply & demand
-typical of class-based societies
-goods, services, rentals, -money is medium of exchange
-very calculated
marked differences in wealth
3 types of reciprocity
generalized
balanced
negative
generalized
-goods or services are given without apparent expectation of return
-giving & taking, no money
-sustains family in all sc systems(parents give food, clothing, shelter; expectation of being good child-pull your weight)
-society level for hunters & gatherers
balanced reciprocity
-explicit & short term in expectation of return
-immediate exchange of goods or services or agreed upon over a limited period of time
-typical of agriculturalists
-level out in the long run
negative reciprocity
-aim is to profit. typical of class-based societies
-essentially to scam
-profit w/o thought of fair return
Redistribution
defined as accumulation of goods or labor by a particular person or place for purpose of subsequent distribution
-pull resources & dividing back out
-first seen in chiefdom; requires chief to do
-supports the chief
-requires a hierarchy
Economic Consumption
subsistence
-food, clothe,etc…

prestige
-accumulating wealth(class based societies)
-Giving away (band societies)

property
-pastures, land
-bands & tribes-common land
-class based-individually held
Extended Family Defined
consists of two or more nuclear parent, polygamous or polyandrous families linked by blood ties
Extended Family Facts
Grandparent, adult children, spouses, children
3 generations
Ecological base usually on agriculture
-keep from dividing plot of land
Senior level &junior level
Old age comes more power
Matrifocal Families
This is a mother and her children with no adult male.
She receives state aid
one type of single parent family
becomes possible with rise of the state
Single parent families more common but not the norm
Marriage Defined
a socially approved sexual and economic union usually between a woman and a man.
It is presumed to be more or less permanent, subsumes reciprocal rights and obligations between the two spouses and their future child(ren).
Marriage Facts
Not all cultures see marriage about love
All seen as culturall sanctioned sex
Marriage is seen as permanent
Financial obligations