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92 Cards in this Set

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The study of humans, focusing on the differences and similarities, both biologically and culturally

Biological anthropology

The study of humans as biological organisms




Human biological diversity


The study of human past by studying material remains left behind

This includes ethnography

And ethnolinguistics


-historical archaeology

Cultural anthropology

The study of living people and their culture primarily through behaviours and beliefs

Linguistic anthropology

The study of languages in the past


Historical linguistics

Descriptive or structural linguistics


Applied anthropology

Apply anthropological knowledge to achieve more practical goals


Explanation by saying how it confirms to a general principle or relationship


Explanations of laws and associations

Darwinian's Evidence

-domesticated plants and animals

-geographic distribution of life forms

-geographical and pale ontological record

-comparative anatomy

-vestigial organs

Domesticated plants and animals

Breeding within a species to produce favourable variations

Geographic distribution of life forms

Isolation of half a species from the other half will produce different variations depending on geographic location

Comparative anatomy

All mammals share characteristics

Vestigial organs

Organs that no longer serve a function but did in the past


A member of the mammalian order primates

Historical archaeology

Studies the material remains of recent people who left records


A time period before written documentation

Historical linguistics

The study of how languages change over time


The study of cultural and sub cultural patterns of speaking in different social contexts


The study of how and why recent cultures differ and are similar

Natural selection

A process that affects the frequencies of traits in a particular environment.




- differential reproductive success


All species have a variety of different individuals, some of which are better adapted to their environment and others are not


Offspring inherit traits from their parents

Differential reproductive success

Better adapted individuals will generally produce more offspring over the generations of poorer-adapted individuals

Adaptive traits

Cultural traits that enhance your chances of survival and reproduction in a particular environment

Maladaptive traits

Cultural traits that diminish the chances of survival and reproduction in a particular environment

Balancing selection

A type of selection that occurs when heterozygous alleles are positively favoured even though homozygous alleles are disfavoured

Directional selection

A type of selection that increases the frequency of a trait

Normalizing selection

The type of selection that removes harmful genes that arose by mutation


A change in the DNA sequence, producing an altered allele

Genetic drift

When a small part of a larger population is separated from the larger population


The gradual increase or decrease in the frequency of a gene

Gene flow

The process by which genes pass from the gene pool of one population to that of another through mating and reproduction


The creation of a viable offspring from the mating of two different species


A population that consists of organisms able to interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring


Systematic study of the biological causes of human behaviour


Impermanent physiological changes that people make when they encounter a new environment


The change in allele frequency from one generation to the next

Macro evolution

Over long periods of time it produces more obvious changes Ina species

Sexual reproduction

Recombined the parents DNA to form new combinations

Random mating

A process whereby every allele has an equal chance of being passed onto the next generation

Sources of biological diversity


-sexual reproduction

-random mating

-natural selection

Mechanisms of natural selection


-genetic adaptation


Types of natural selection


- stabilizing

- disruptive

- artificial

Artificial selection

The result of humans


Any change by which organisms respond to selection pressure

Genetic adaptation

Changes within a population in response to selection pressure

Directional selection

Selection is favouring larger body size over time

Stabilizing selection

Extremes are selected against, decreasing genetic diversity

Types of population genetics

-gene flow

-genetic drift

Types of genetic drift

-founders effect


Founders effect

The migration of a small sub-population away from the parent population

Bottleneck effect

The removal of a large portion of the population because of a natural disaster


Can occur because of geographical isolation, natural disaster and/or reduction of gene flow

Types of speciation




One species gradually evolving over time (gradualism)


One species branching out into two or more species

Primates: Senses

-reduced snout and less reliance on your senses

-binocular vision and coloured vision

- tactile pads and dermal ridges on digits for greater prehensility

Primates: Teeth and Diet

- teeth evolved primarily to process

-generalized dental pattern (incisors, molars, canines)

-Lack of specializations in teeth and diet

Primates: Post cranial (everything other than the skull)

-prehensile hands and feet

-Retention of collarbone

-Opposable thumb and big toe

-large brain-to-body size ratio

-erect upper body

-diversity of locomotion

Primates: Diversity of modes of locomotion

-vertical clinging and leaping




Primates: life history

-Long gestation period and period of infancy

-k-selected(one offspring at a time)

-relatively long life span

Primates: geographical and niche distribution

-tropical to temperate environments

-desert to tropical rain forests

-arboreal and terrestrial

-nocturnal and diurnal

How to find sites or localities

-surface survey

-aerial photography and satellite images

- soil marks and crop marks

-non-intrusive methods

- ethnohistorical data

-natural erosion

-human activity

Surface survey

If you already know other sites have been found in that general location, so there could be others

Aerial photography and satellite images

By finding something that may not be visible from the ground, or cover greater area more quickly

Soil marks and crop marks

-Soil marks are a discolouration in soil because of something close to the surface

-crop marks are discolouration in plant life...

Non-intrusive methods

Expensive to excavate without a cause, because some regions need reasonable cause

Ethnohistorical data

Maps, folklore, biblical archaeology


-most important part of archaeology

-cannot be redone, do it right once the first time

-begins with establishing a grid system and datum point

-record keeping and screening

-determining the function of the artifacts

Dating methods

-relative dating methods

-chronometeic dating methods

Relative dating methods


-stylistic seriation

-faunal analysis


Fluorine method


Chronometric dating methods

-Radiocarbon dating

-potassium-argon dating


-calendrical dating


-uranium series dating


What is deeper is relatively older than what is nearer to the surface

Stylistic seriation

How the style of things change over time

Faunal analysis

Similar to seriation, but refers to animal species found


Like seriation but refers to types of pollen

Fluorine method

Water has fluorine in it and objects that have been in water or subject to rain for longer will be found with more fluorine in it.


Layers of sediment found in the bottoms of lakes

Radiocarbon dating

How much carbon-14 is left, measured by half life, can only date organic matter

Potassium-argon dating

Also based on concept of radioactive decay, dating volcanic material


Tree rings

Calendrical dating

Civilizations must have decipherable written calendar


Accumulation of electrons

Uranium series dating

Radioactive decay of uranium


A place where you find evidence of human occupation


Find human remains or fossils


A condition of oxygen deficiency that occurs at high altitudes

Bergamans rule

Smaller sized sub populations of a species inhabit the warmer parts of its geographic range and larger-sized sub populations the cooler areas

Allen's rule

Protruding body parts are relatively shorter in the cooler areas of a species' range than in warmer areas

Gloger's rule

Populations of birds and mammals living in warm, humid climates have more melanin than populations of the exact same species living in cooler, drier areas


Adapted to the tree


Active during the day