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66 Cards in this Set

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The rate of evolution (i.e., fast or slow) for species that mature and reproduce large numbers in a short amount of time. (Hint: Think about how fast insects and microscopic organisms usually evolve.)
very fast
The kind of environment in which you would expect to find mostly unique species living.
islands long isolated from the rest of the world (e.g., Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii
The 19th century English scientist who carried out the necessary research to conclusively document that evolution has occurred and then made the idea acceptable for scientists and the general public. This man did not invent the idea of evolution.
Charles Darwin
The relatively rapid expansion and diversification of an evolving group of organisms as they adapt to new ecological niches. This is the process by which one species evolves into two or more species. It occurs as a result of different populations becoming reproductively isolated from each other, usually by adapting to different environments.
adaptive radiation
Charles Darwin’s 1859 book in which he published his theory of evolution in full for his fellow scientists and for the public at large.
On The Origin of Species
A largely isolated group of islands in the Eastern Pacific Ocean that have plant and animal species found nowhere else in the world. It was there that Charles Darwin began to really comprehend what causes evolution to occur.
Galápagos Islands
The name of the British Naval ship that Charles Darwin sailed on in 1831 as an unpaid naturalist. This voyage took them around the world and lasted for six years.
H.M.S. Beagle
A Central European monk who carried out plant breeding experiments between 1856 and 1863. Through these experiments, he discovered that there is a recombination of parental traits in offspring. As a result, children can have a combination of traits different from either parent.
Gregor Mendel
The British naturalist who in 1858 sent Charles Darwin a draft of an essay he had written on natural selection. This scientist was collecting specimens of plants and animals in Southeast Asia at the time. His essay pressured Darwin to quickly finish his own book on natural selection.
Alfred Wallace
A late 18th and early 19th century English clergyman and pioneer economist who published an extensive article entitled Essay on the Principles of Population. In it he observed that human populations will double every 25 years unless they are kept in check by limits in food supply.
Thomas Malthus
The observable or detectable characteristics of an individual organism; the detectable expression of a genotype.
Offspring that are the result of mating between two genetically different kinds of parents--the opposite of purebred.
The genotype of an individual who is a carrier for a recessive allele that is not expressed in his/her phenotype.
The genotype that normally results in the expression of a recessive allele in the phenotype.
homozygous recessive
A 19th century central European monk scientist who published his ideas about genetics in 1866 but largely went unrecognized until 1900, which was long after his death. He acquired his understanding of genetics mostly through pea plant breeding experiments.
Gregor Mendel
The genetic makeup of an individual for a trait or for all of his/her inherited traits—not the observable or detectable characteristics.
The study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. This is the branch of science that deals with the inheritance of biological characteristics.
The only genotype that normally will not result in the expression of a dominant allele in the phenotype.
homozygous recessive
A simple graphical method of showing all of the potential combinations of offspring genotypes that can occur and their probability given the parent genotypes.
Punnett square
Units of inheritance usually occurring at specific locations, or loci, on a chromosome. These units are responsible for hereditary characteristics in plants and animals.
A theory that inherited traits blend from generation to generation. Most of the leading scientists in the 19th century accepted it. However, Gregor Mendel proved that it was not correct.
blending theory
A genotype consisting of two identical alleles of a gene for a particular trait.
homozygous genotype
The term for a genotype in which there is a dominant allele and a recessive one.
The general term for an allele that is masked in the phenotype by the presence of another allele.
recessive allele
The term for a genotype in which there are two dominant alleles.
homozygous dominant
Gregor Mendel's principle of genetic inheritance stating that, for any particular trait, the pair of genes of each parent separate (during the formation of sex cells) and only one gene from each parent passes on to an offspring.
principle of segregation
Offspring that are the result of mating between genetically similar kinds of parents.
An inheritance pattern in which a gene has more than two alleles. The human ABO blood type system is an example. It is controlled by at least 3 alleles.
multiple-allele series
The international research effort designed to discover all human genes and to determine their functions.
Human Genome Project
how long ago the first animals walked across Africa, and from which family?
3.7 Million years
Hominidae Family, same family as the modern Homo sapiens
A change in the genetic structure of a population. The term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species.
an anatomical, physiological or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment.
genetic changes over time resulting in new species in the populations
Large-scale changes that occur in populations only after many generations, such as speciation.
Small genetic changes that occur within a species, such as the frequency of certain traits.
the field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology.
The double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code, a set of instructions for producing bodily structures and functions. Also the main component in Chromosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
1. Conduct a Hypothesis
2. Collect Data (quantitatively)
3. Scientific Testing
4. Hypothesis Falsifications testing
5. Development of theory
Steps of the Scientific Method
Viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one's own culture. Often results in other cultures being seen as inferior to others.
The chemical processes within cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use. Broken down to component parts such as amino acids,
Humans didnt evolve from monkeys or chimpanzees; but when was our last common ancestor separated from monkey like animals?
20 million years ago (mya)
The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change, first articulated by Charles Darwin; refers to genetic changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals. Alfred Russel Wallace independently researched the same thing.
natural selection
The notion that species can never change; usually that God created all like on Earth.
Fixity of Species
Finding the New World in the 15 century, disproved traditional belief systems. Copernicus challenged Aristotle in the fact that the sun was now understood to be the center of the solar system.
Led to the change in the way the world thinks of evolution
to understand the development and the behavior of people by analyzing and comparing human characteristics and customs in all times and places. Means, "Human" and "study of".
Goals of Anthropology
1. Sociocultural Anthropolgy
2. Archaeology
3. Linguistic Anthropology
4. Applied Anthropology
5. Physical/Biological Anthropology
5 Subfields of Anthropology
The study of human societies, their belief systems, their cultural adaptations and their social behaviors. Characteristics: shared, learned, symbolic, integrated and adaptive.
Sociocultural Anthropology
Reconstructs, describes and interprets past human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains. Provides the oppotunity to look at changes in social complexity over thousands of years.
The relationship between culture and language.
Linguistic Anthropology
The application of data, perspectives, theory and techniques to identify and assess and solve contemporary social problems.
Applied Anthropology
The study of human evolution, biological variation and adaptation: Forensics, Human Growth, Primatology, Genetics.
Biological (Physical) Anthropology
1. data to theory
2. theory to evaluation
Inductive Model
Deductive Model
Since the geological process we observe today are representative of those that occurred in the past, we can make inferences about the past by observing the present. Earth's features are the result of continuous gradual change.
Levels of Taxonomy
How many % of species that have ever lived are now extinct?
For a trait to be chosen by natural selection it must be
1. Variable within the Population
2. Heritable (encoded in DNA)
3. Affect fitness (survival, high fertility)
Selections through male to male competition or female choice. If there are 2 diff shapes between male and females this is taking place.
Sexual Selection
Survival vs Reproduction
Natural Selection vs Sexual Selection
Three bases in a DNA or RNA sequence which specify an amino acid.
Types of Proteins that serve as catalysts, initiating chemical reactions in the body.
structures composed of DNA and protein in nuclei of cells.
A sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entire protein. A gene can be made up of hundreds of thousands of DNA bases organized into coding and noncoding segments.
Not Visible to the naked eye; gentic code such as DNA AA Aa or aa alleles
The outward appearance of a gene, which does not necessarily reflect the genetic code.
Expression of two alleles in heterozygous. Neither allele is dominant nor recessive and both influence the phenotype. ex. type AB blood
Reproductive cells (eggs & sperm) developed from precursor cells in ovaries and testes.