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268 Cards in this Set

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Relative Dating
Comparitive methods to determine whether something is older or younger than something else
Flourine Nitrogen Dating
accumulation of flourine in bones - Relative method
Statographic Dating
relationship of item to position of fossil in rock/soil sequence - Relative method
relative age in comparison to similar fossils - Relative method
positioning of lava content point to magnetic north which shifts - Relative method
Chronometric Dating/ Absolute Dating
dating technique used for estimating dates
Radiocarbon (14C) Dating
dates the age of organic material - CD/AD
Potassium-Argon Dating
used on soil/rock deposit only on volcanic material - CD/AD
this is the use of tree rings used to pinpoint exact year the tree was cut down - CD/AD
Fission-Track Dating, Varve Dating, Thermoluminescence (TL) Dating, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Dating
AD/CD methods
First Species -
Sehelanthropus tchadensis
Sehelanthropus tchadensis Date -
7 - 6 mybp
Sehelanthropus tchadensis Discovered by/ primary location –
Brunet and Djimdomallsaie/ Torros Menalla, Chad/ in 2001
Sehelanthropus tchadensis Distribution -
Chad, Central Africa
Sehelanthropus tchadensis Cranial Capacity -
320-380 cc
Sehelanthropus tchadensis Physical/ Cultural features –
ape-like features, no post-cranial bones found, foramen magnum positioned toward back of skull indicative of quadrapedal locomotion, maybe early gorilla or other species of ape
Species after Sehelanthropus tchadensis -
Orrorin Tugenesis
Orrorin Tugenesis Date -
6 mybp
Orrorin Tugenesis Discovered by/ primary location –
Pickford and Senut/ Baringo, Kenya/ 2000 (according to the book), Feb 2001 in lecture
Orrorin Tugenesis Distribution -
Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Baringo District, Kenya, East Africa
Orrorin Tugenesis Cranial Capacity -
No reasonably complete cranial remains yet discovered
Orrorin Tugenesis Physical/ Cultural features –
find includes teeth, femur, mandible, and misc. arm bones, approximately the size of a female chimpanzee, may have been a climber and bipedal, "Millennium Man"
Species after Orrorin Tugenesis -
Ardipithecus kaddaba
Ardipithecus kaddaba Date -
5.8 -5.2 mybp
Ardipithecus kaddaba Discovered by/ primary location –
Haile-Selassie/ Middle Awash, Central Ethiopia/ July 2001
Ardipithecus kaddaba Distribution -
Middle Awash region, Central Ethiopia, East Africa
Ardipithecus kaddaba Cranial Capacity -
No reasonalbly complete cranial remains yet published
Ardipithecus kaddaba Physical/ Cultural features –
tenative biped, canine teeth show primitive features, teeth, toe bones, lower arm bone of 5 or more individuals found at site
Species after Ardipithecus kaddaba -
Ardipithecus Ramidus
Ardipithecus Ramidus Cranial Capacity -
No reasonalbly complete cranial remains yet published
Ardipithecus Ramidus Date -
5.8 - 4.4 mybp
Ardipithecus Ramidus Discovered by -
Tim White, Suwa, and Asfaw / Aramis, Ethiopia / 1993
Ardipithecus Ramidus Distribution -
Aramis, Ethiopia, East Africa
Ardipithecus Ramidus Physical/ Cultural features –
foramen magnum situated far foward, indicative of bipedal locomotion
Species after Ardipithecus Ramidus -
Australopithecus anamensis
Australopithecus anamensis Date -
4.2 - 3.9 mybp
Australopithecus anamensis Discovered by -
Bryan Patterson / Kanapoi, Kenya / 1965 / Meave Leakey's Team / 1995
Australopithecus anamensis Distribution -
Kanapoi, Allia Bay, Kenya, East Africa
Australopithecus anamensis Cranial Capacity -
No reasonably complete cranial remains yet discovered
Australopithecus anamensis Features -
Mixture of primitive features in skull, teeth and jaws similar to older fossil apes, human-like humerus, tibia shows strong evidence of bipedality
Species after Australopithecus anamensis -
Australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus afarensis Date -
3.9 - 3.0 mybp
Australopithecus afarensis Discovered by -
Don Johanson / Hadar, Ethiopia / 1973
Australopithecus afarensis Distribution -
Hadar, Ethiopia, East Africa, several other East African sites
Australopithecus afarensis Cranial Capacity -
370-550 cc
Australopithecus afarensis Features -
3'6'' - 4'6'', weight 65-100 lbs, Dentition; large molars, thick enamel, reduced canines, sexually dimorphic, true biped, "Lucy"
Species after Australopithecus afarensis -
Kenyanthropus platyops
Kenyanthropus platyops Date -
3.5 - 3.2 mybp
Kenyanthropus platyops Discovered by -
Justus Erus of Meave Leakey's team / 1999 / Lomekwi, Kenya
Kenyanthropus platyops Distribution -
Lomekwi, West Lake Turkana, Kenya, East Africa
Kenyanthropus platyops Cranial Capacity -
similar to A. afarensis, so around 375-550 cc
Kenyanthropus platyops Features -
"flat-faced man of Kenya", great deal of distortion due to condition of skull found, thought at one time to be A. afarensis, large flat-face, small teeth
Species after Kenyanthropus platyops -
Australopithecus bahrelghazali
Australopithecus bahrelghazali Date -
3.5 - 3.0 mybp
Australopithecus bahrelghazali Discovered by -
Michael Brunet / 1993 / Northern Chad
Australopithecus bahrelghazali Distribution -
Bahrel Ghazal Valley / near Koro Toro, Chad, North-Central Africa
Australopithecus bahrelghazali Cranial Capacity -
no reasonably complete cranial remains yet discovered
Australopithecus bahrelghazali Features -
appears to be herbivorus, similar dentition to A. afarensis, northern most australopithecine
Species after Australopithecus bahrelghazali -
Australopithecus africanus
Australopithecus africanus Date -
3 - 2 mybp
Australopithecus africanus Discovered by -
Raymond Dart / Limestone Quarry in Taung, South Africa / 1924
Australopithecus africanus Distribution -
Taung, South Africa, as well as other South African sites
Australopithecus africanus Cranial Capacity -
430-520 cc
Australopithecus africanus Features -
3'8'' - 4'6'', weight 65-90 lbs, sexually dimorphism, dentition; small canines, no diastema, smaller molars, "gracile", "Taung Child"
Supraorbital torus -
or "brow ridge", still seen in male homo sapiens, but to a much lesser extent than in our ancestors
Sagittal Crest -
caused by chewing muscles, found in robust australopithecus
Sagittal Keel -
slight keeling of parietal bones - found in homo erectus
Receding symphysis -
abscence of chin - only homo sapiens do not have this feature, some homo sapiens have a very pronounced symphysis
Postorbital Constriction -
pinching in of the frontal portion of the skull - decrease in post orbital constriction corresponds with increase in brain size
Cranial Vault -
forehead or lack thereof – cranial vaulting increases in later hominid species
Pneumatic flaring –
Flaring of the occipital region
Occipital Bun -
found in homo neanderthalensis - helps to balance the head -counterweight to heavy facial bones
Endocast -
impression of the interior of the cranium - this can show features of the vascular system of the brain
Flat face -
indentation of the mid-portion of the cranium
Mid-face prognathism -
jutting out of the mid portion of the face
Prominent zygomatic arches -
large cheek bones
Species after Australopithecus africanus -
Australopithecus aethiopicus
Australopithecus aethiopicus Date -
2.5 mybp
Australopithecus aethiopicus Discovered by -
Arambourg and Coopens / 1967 / Omo, Ethiopia
Australopithecus aethiopicus Distribution -
Omo, Ethiopia, East Africa, as well as Kenya
Australopithecus aethiopicus Cranial Capacity -
410 cc
Australopithecus aethiopicus Features -
"The Black Skull", large face, jaws, large saggital crest, shares many traits with A. afarensis
Species after Australopithecus aethiopicus -
Australopithecus garhi
Australopithecus garhi Date -
2.5 mybp
Australopithecus garhi Discovered by -
Asfaw and White / 1997 / Named by Yohannes Haile-Selaisse in 1999
Australopithecus garhi Distribution -
Bouri, Ethiopia, Middle Awash, East Africa
Australopithecus garhi Cranial Capacity -
450 cc (male)
Australopithecus garhi Features -
found with butchered animal bones, sagittal crest in males, dentition; short upper canines, u-shaped denial arcade, "gracile", large molars, possible tool use
Species after Australopithecus garhi -
Australopithecus boisei
Australopithecus boisei
Date -
2.3 - 1.3 mybp
Australopithecus boisei Discovered by -
Mark Leakey / Oldvai Gorge, Tanzania / 1959
Australopithecus boisei Distribution -
Oldvai Gorge, Tanzania, East Africa, other sites too
Australopithecus boisei Cranial Capacity -
487 cc
Australopithecus boisei Features -
dished face, 3'6''-4'4'', 75-110 lbs, dentition; short canines, small front teeth, huge molars, "Nutcrackerman"
Species after Australopithecus boisei -
Australopithecus robustus
Australopithecus robustus Date -
2 - 1 mybp
Australopithecus robustus Discovered by -
Robert Broom / Kroomdraii, South Africa / 1938
Australopithecus robustus Distribution -
Kroomaii, South Africa, as well as other South African sites
Australopithecus robustus Cranial Capacity -
530 cc
Australopithecus robustus Features -
massive jaw, sagittal crest as anchor for large chewing muscles, larger and thicker teeth, flat face, coarse diet, large brow ridges, no forehead
Species after Australopithecus robustus -
Homo rudolfensis
Homo rudolfensis Date -
2.4 - 1.6 mybp
Homo rudolfensis Discovered by -
Alexeev (Bernard Ngeneo w/ Richard Leakey) / 1972
Homo rudolfensis Distribution -
Koobi Fora, Kenya, East Africa
Homo rudolfensis Cranial Capacity -
752 - 810 cc
Homo rudolfensis Physical Features and other information -
coexisted with homo habilis, 4'9''-5'0'', weight 112-132 lbs, dentition; smaller molars, larger front teeth, small brow ridges and rounder occipital base
Species after Homo rudolfensis -
Homo habilis
Homo habilis Date -
2.0 - 1.5 mya
Homo habilis Discovered by/ Year -
Mary and Louis Leakey / Oldavai Gorge, Kenya / 1960
Homo habilis Distribution -
Oldavai Gorge, Tanzania, as well as Kenya, East and South Africa
Homo habilis Cranial Capacity -
590-710 cc
Homo habilis Physical features and other information -
somewhat prognathic face, large brow ridge, longer arms and shorter legs than modern humans, 4'2''-5'2'', 70-114 lbs, tool use, "handy man"
Species after Homo habilis -
Homo eragster
Homo eragster Date -
2.0 - 1.5 mybp
Homo eragster Discovered by/ Year -
Groves and Mozak / 1984 / Lake Turkana, Kenya
Homo eragster Distribution -
Nariokotome, Lake Turkana, Kenya, East and South Africa
Homo eragster Cranial Capacity -
850-910 cc
Homo eragster Physical Features and other information -
5'3''-6'0'', 145 lbs, efficent walker, thinner skull bones, found in Europe, Acheulean tool technology, perhaps fire use
Species after Homo eragster -
Homo erectus
Homo erectus Date -
2.0 mya - 27 kya
Homo erectus Discovered by/ Year -
Eugene Dubois / 1891 / Solo River, near the town of Trinil
Homo erectus Distribution -
Africa, Asia, and Europe (but more strictly Asia)
Homo erectus Cranial Capacity -
750-1250 cc
Homo erectus Physical features and other information -
5'6'', 150 lbs, first to move out of Africa, dentition; reduced molars and premolars, used fire, cooked food, thicker skull bones
Species after Homo erectus -
Homo antecessor / Homo heidelbergensis
Homo antecessor / Homo heidelbergensis Date -
800 - 100 kybp
Homo antecessor / Homo heidelbergensis Physical features and other information -
4'9''-6'1'', weight 110-165 lbs, evidence of hunting, robust body, smaller and seperate eye brows, higher cranial vault, less prognathic face
Homo antecessor / Homo heidelbergensis Discovered by -
Shotensack / 1907 / Mauer, Germany
Homo antecessor / Homo heidelbergensis Distribution -
Europe, Asia, Africa
Homo antecessor / Homo heidelbergensis Cranial Capacity -
1100-1450 cc
Species after Homo antecessor / Homo heidelbergensis -
Homo neanderthalensis
Homo neanderthalensis Date -
225 - 28 kybp
Homo neanderthalensis Discovered by/ Year -
Johann Karl Fuhlrott / 1856 / Neander Valley, Germany
Homo neanderthalensis Distribution -
Europe, West Asia
Homo neanderthalensis Cranial Capacity -
1250-1750 cc
Homo neanderthalensis Physical features and other information -
4'6''-5'6'', weight 110-165 lbs, large nose, modern hyboid bone, robust stocky physique, mousterian technology, cannabilism, intentional burial
Species after Homo neanderthalensis -
Homo floresiensis
Homo floresiensis Date -
95 - 13 kybp
Homo floresiensis Discovered by/ Year -
Brown and Morwood / 2003 / Flores Island, Indonesia
Homo floresiensis Distribution -
Flores Island, Indonesia
Homo floresiensis Cranial Capacity -
380 cc
Homo floresiensis Physical features and other information -
3' tall, 55 lbs, evolved as the result of the island environment of Flores along w/ other animals on the island
Species after Homo floresiensis -
Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens Discovered by/ Year -
Klasies River mouth, South Africa / border cave in Omo Kibish 1, Ethiopia / Tim White, 2003, Middle Awash, Ethiopia
Homo sapiens Date -
130 kybp - Present
Homo sapiens Distribution -
Across the globe
Homo sapiens Cranial Capacity -
1300 cc (average)
Homo sapiens Physical features and other information
vertical forehead, relatively small brow ridge, pyramidal mastoid process, canine fossa, definite chin
Reproduction Video Questions (RVQ) - How many sperm in an average ejacualtion
400 million sperm
RVQ - What percent of sperm reaches the fallopian tubes -
less than 1 percent
RVQ - how many sperm reach the egg
100 sperm
RVQ - how many sperm penetrated the egg -
1 sperm
RVQ - How many days does it take for the egg to implant -
7 days
RVQ - what percent of fertelized eggs implant the uterus -
50 percent of fertilized eggs implant the uterus
RVQ - when does a fertilized egg become an embryo -
after the 5th week
RVQ - by what week are the internal organs formed -
after the 8th week
RVQ - when does the fetus become completely formed -
after the 13th week
RVQ - what does the fetus lack at week 32 -
a good layer of insulating fat and the lung tissue is not yet complete
emissary foramen
in skull, but often not present
Radiator theory
less exposure to the sun as a result of an upright posture has allowed humans to adapt better as well as have less hair and being able to sweat; this all has the result of cooling the brain significantly in gracile australopithicinces
Homo georgicus
discovered in 1999, Dmanisi in Georgia, 1.8 mybp
Olduwan Tool Technology Age -
2.6 - 2.5 mybp
Olduwan Tool Technology Where -
East Africa
Olduwan Tool Technology Who -
Mary and Louis Leakey
Olduwan Tool Technology Hominid -
Homo habilis, "handy man"
Olduwan tools -
hammer stone, core, flake
Acheulean Tool Technology Age
1.6 - 1.4 mya
Acheulean Tool Technology locations -
East Africa, Asia, and Europe
Acheulean Tool Technology hominids -
Homo erectus
Acheulean Tool Technology tools
hand axe
Mousterian Tool Technology Age -
500 - 400 kya
Mousterian Tool Technology Locations -
SW France
Mousterian Tool Technology hominids -
Homo neanderthalensis, Archaic homo sapiens
Mousterian Tool Technology tools -
small hand axe
Levallois technique -
the process of stone tool manufacture using a prepared core, associated with Mousterian Tool Technology in the Middle and Upper Patheolithic
Core -
large piece of stone from which flakes have been removed
Flake -
fragment of stone removed from a larger core and could be used to make complex tools
Hammer stones -
stone used to strike core stone and remove flakes
Hand-axe -
a pear-shape or ovoid stone tool which has been worked on both sides (beginning in the Acheulean Tool Era)
Meaning of Osteodontokeratic -
Bone - Dental - Tool (Osteo - donto - keratic)
Osteodontokeratic industry -
The Osteodontokeratic industry is a theoretical construct of the anthropologist, Raymond Dart. He proposed that certain jagged animal bones and horns found at the Makepansgat hominid site represent pre-lithic artifacts with which Australopithecus murdered and cannibalized his fellow Australopithecines
a website that is dedicated to improving the lifes of chimps who have been used for commercial purposes
Multiregional model -
african origin, gene flow, parallel evolution between species
Hybrid model -
interbreeding between species, etc.
African Origin model -
African Adam, 180 kybp, Y Chromosome, Lemba (dark-skinned Jewish people in South Africa), African Eve, 125 kybp, Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA -
only inherited from the mother, mutates faster than DNA -lacks repair ensymes, studied in several different human populations, greatest diversity found in African population, therefore the eldest population - molecular clock
Native American Origins -
Four rare mtDNA haplotypes are found in native Americans, the same haplotypes in Mongolia and China
Neanderthal -
Mitochondrial DNA studies indicate that he was not a direct human ancestor, contemporary species with early homo sapiens, homo sapiens outcompeted homo neanderthalensis
Domestication -
10 kybp, property, structured homes, warfare, increased population, economic stratification, job diversity, political stratification, monetary system, increased disease, increased malnutrition
Development -
Embyological differentiation of organs and tissues - earliest stage of growth
Growth -
an increase in the number of cells in an organism
Interstitial Growth -
growth by new cell formations
Appositional Growth -
growth by adding layers at a specific point or plane
Stage 1: Prenatal/Embryonic -
conception to birth, rapid growth, differentiation of various tissues, 40 weeks in humans
Stage 2: Infancy -
earliest stage of postpartum growth, birth to time of weaning, completely dependent on mother
Stage 3: Childhood -
growth from weaning to attainment of adult brain size, it is also part of the juvenile stage, is unique to humans
Stage 4: Juvenile -
growth from the eruption of the first to the last permanent tooth, it is also part of adolescence
Stage 5: Adolescence -
Begins with the onset of puberty, ends with the attainment of full adult stature, age has very greatly during the past
Maturation of Females: Menarche in females -
Average age is 12.5, followed by 1-3 years of subfecundity, pelvis attains human size at age 17-18, females reach adult reproductive maturity between 20 and 24 years old, miscarriage and low birth weight baby rates are higher for young mothers
Maturation in Males: Puberty in males -
Early seminal fluids contain sperm, not fully fecund at the time, medians for sperm production is 13.5, males are usually 2 years behind females in growth, females have peak growth prior to puberty
Stage 6: Adulthood -
from last eruption of permenant teeth until death, longest life spans in primates
Stage 7: Old Age -
Post-reproduction; Menopause in females, rate of cell death greater than replacement
Aids Theory Article: Author -
Jim Moore, graduated from Harvard in 1985, currently teaches at UCSD
Aids Theory Article: Theory One -
Tainted Polio Vaccine (OPV), this theory believes that contaminated polio vaccines used by Koprowski in the late 1950s in West Africa were responsible for spreading the main HIV-1, this view has been supported by Curtis, Elswood, Pascal, Kyle, and Hooper
Aids Theory Article: Theory Two -
Cut Hunter theory, this theory states that hunters in West Africa who were cut while in close proximity of chimps and other apes and monkeys caught the aids virus and as a result of "modernization", this disease was spread throughtout urban areas
Aids Theory Article: Theory Three -
Contaminated Needles theory, this theory is supported by Preston A. Marx and states that disposable needles were reused many times earlier in the twentieth century, allowing the aids virus to mutate and spread rapidly
Aids Theory Article: Theory Four -
Heart of Darkness theory, this theory is supported by Moore, Chitnis, and Rawls and states that as a result of colonial forced labor practices and many other factors described in the contaminated needles theory, aids was allowed to spread rapidly and kill many without the knowledge of the scientific community until much later on
Secular Trends -
trends in growth or morphological characteristics attributable to changing environmental factors, (e.g., decrease in the age of menarche, nutrition, disease), not genetic adaptation*
Human Adaptability -
Acclimization; physiological adaptation over a period from weeks to years, may have some morphological effect, genetically passed on (barrel chest in high altitude)
Acclimation -
physiological adaptation over a period of time, jet lag, tanning
Habituation -
neurophysiological mechanism, tune out unwanted stimuli, accomadation only takes a few minutes, "white noise", parents
Nutritional Adaptations -
thrifty genotype - adaptation to storing excess calories - excess is then burned off during times of famine or scarcity of food
Pre-Agricultural Human Diet -
high in complex carbohydrates and fiber as well as protein, low in fat and sodium
Contemprorary Diet -
low in complex carbohydrates and fiber as well as protein, high in fat and sodium
Museum of Man Project -
Good Study Tool!
Museum of Man Website -
Good Study Tool!
Museum of Man Website Summary -
Good Study Tool!
Wikireasearch -
Good Study Tool!
Postorbital Bar -
big eye sockets bone, tarsiers, not humans because humans are not diurnal
What is "Lucy" -
A. afarensis
Who had an occipital bun -
H. neanderthalensis
Where was H. florensis found -
On Flores Island in Indonesia
Who found "Lucy" -
Donald Johansen
Who found the "Taung Child", and what is the "Taund Child" -
Raymond Dart found it in 1924 and it is A. africanus
What is the stage called from being fetal to the differentiation of cells called -
At what stage does puberty take place -
What is the only speices of homo to make it to the new world -
Homo Sapiens
What are the Lemba -
they are the dark-skinned Jewish people of southern Africa
What is the theory that early homos evolved parallely across Africa, Asia, and Europe -
Multiregional Model
What is the theory of replacement from homo sapiens that orginated in Africa -
Out of Africa Model
Remember to know what species are ----- than others -
Is tugenisis older than plateourous -
Which are older, A. africanus or A. Bosei
Who used Mousterian tool technology -
H. neanderthalensis
What is the oldest tool tradition -
Osteodontokeratic is what -
it is the bone tool tradition
Upper Paleolithic -
40 - 10 kya
Middle Paleolithic -
300 - 30 kya
Three time periods examined are -
Miocene, Piocene
Pliocene -
5.332 - 1.806 mybp
Pleistocene -
1,808,000 mya - 11,550 kya
Miocene -
23 - 5.3 mybp
Lower Paleolithic -
2.5 mya - 120 kya
Lower Paleolithic associated with -
Olduwan culture
Acheulean culture
Clactonian culture
Upper Paleolithic associated with -
Châtelperronian culture
Aurignacian culture
Gravettian culture
Solutrean culture
Magdalenian culture
Middle Paleolithic associated with -
Mousterian culture
Aterian culture
Middle Pleistocene -
780 kya - 125 kya
Upper Pleistocene -
125 kya - 10 kya
What does Trinkaus believe -
Trinkaus says that H. Sapiens and H. Neanderthalensis interbred more than was previously thought,
What does Chris Stringer believe -
Chris Stringer says that since modern humans are not well-suited to live in cold climates, it is less likely that H. neanderthalensis bred with H. Sapiens
What does Lahn believe -
he believes that H. neanderthalensis contributed a gene to humans that allowed our brains to grow larger
Epidemiology -
the study of diseases
Zoonose -
a disease spread by animals (e.g., rabies, mad cow, e bola, bird flu)
Vector -
transmitting agent for disease (e.g., mosquitos for malaria and fleas for bubonic plague)
Endemic -
always present in the population, continously present in the population (e.g., chicken pox in the UK, malaria in West Africa)
Epidemic -
rapid spreading, widespread, infecting large numbers of people, spreading faster than "expected" (e.g., the Black Death in Europe, the Great Influeza Pandemic after WW1)
Pandemic -
spread over a wide geographic location, endemic affecting a larger region (e.g., Aids, Great Influenza Pandemic after WW1, malaria,)
Infectious (Communicable) diseases -
generally caused by bacteria, virus, fungus, and parasites
Top ten infectious diseases -
Influenza, Tuberculosis, Cholera, AIDS, Malaria, Measles, Hepatatis, Bordatella/Pertuses, Tetanus, Dengue/Hemorragic fever
Non-Infectionious (Non-Communicable) Disease -
caused by genetic or environmental influences, can be linked to diet/nutrition, work, pollution/contamination, technology, as well as by drug addiction, and obesity
Eleven examples of Non-infectious disease are -
Cancer,Heart disease, Kidney disease, Liver disease, Respiratory Illness (Pulmonary Fibrosis, Emphysema), Neurological disorders, Digestive System disease, Arthritis
, and Diabetes
Dean Falk -
creator of the radiator theory
Transverse Sinus -
Found in "gracile" australopithicines
O.M. Sinus -
Found in "robust" australopiticines
Brain cooling is made by -
Foramina bipedalism and protein (blood flow patterns)
Order of the Species based on age (oldest to youngest) -
Sehelanthropus tchadensis, Orrorin Tugenesis, Ardipithecus kaddaba, Ardipithecus Ramidus, Australopithecus anamensis, Australopithecus afarensis, Kenyanthropus platyops, Australopithecus bahrelghazali, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus garhi, Homo rudolfensis, Australopithecus boisei, Homo habilis, Homo eragster, Australopithecus robustus, Homo erectus, Homo antecessor, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens, Homo floresiensis
Order of Species Based on the size of cranial capacity (largest to smallest) -
Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens, Homo antecessor, Homo erectus, Homo eragster, Homo rudolfensis, Homo habilis, Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus boisei, Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus aethiopicus, Kenyanthropus platyops, Homo floresiensis, Sehelanthropus tchadensis
Chronology of Discoveries –
1) Brunet and Djimdomallsaie in Torros Menalla, Chad in 2001
2) Pickford and Senut in Baringo, Kenya in Feb 2001
3) Haile-Selassie in Middle Awash, Central Ethiopia in July 2001
4) White, Suwa, and Asfaw in Aramis, Ethiopia in 1993
5) Bryan Patterson in Kanapoi, Kenya in 1965 and Leakey’s team in 1995
6) Don Johanson in Hadar, Ethiopia in 1973
7) Justus Erus of Meave Leakey’s team in Lomekwi, Kenya in 1999
8) Michel Brunet in Northern Chad in 1993
9) Raymond Dart in Taung, South Africa in 1924
10) Araumbourg and Coopens in Omo, Ethiopia in 1967
11) Asfaw and White in Bouri, Ethiopia 1997 and named by Haile-Selaise in 1999
12) Mary Leakey in Oldvai Gorge, Tanzania in 1959
13) Richard Broom in Kroomdraai, South Africa in 1938
14) Alexeev (Ngeneo and Richard Leaky) in Koobi Fora, Kenya in 1972
15) Mary and Louis Leakey in Olduvai Gorge, Kenya in 1960
16) Groves and Mozak in Lake Turkana, Kenya in 1984
17) Eugene Dobois at the Solo River near the town of Trinl in Indonesia in 1891
18) Shotensack in Mauer, Germany in 1907
19) Johann Karl Fuhlrott in Neander Valley, Germany in 1856
20) Brown and Morwood in Flores Island, Indonesia in 2003
21) Klasies River Valley and White in Middle Awash, Ethiopia in 2003