• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Modern Synthesis

Fusion of mendelian generics with darwinian evolution, which forms the unified theory of evolution


Theory that profound change is the result of many slow, continuous processes, a polar opposite to catastrophism.

Punctuated equilibrium

Theory that once species appear in the fossil record, they will become stable, showing little to no evolution of traits. This state is called stasis.

Significant change is usually restricted to cladogenisis, where one species rapidly especiates.


In diploid (2-chromosome) organisms, a homozygous allele pair is one that contains 2 genetically identical alleles.


In diploid (2-chromosome) organisms, a heterozygous allele pair is one that contains 2 genetically distinct alleles.


One of two or more forms of a single gene. They arise through mutation. A single allele will be located at the same spot in the chromosome of two different organisms of the same species.


Heritable genetic identity


Gene expression present in an organism, deriving from it's genotype


Basic unit of heredity; constructed from DNA, compose alleles.


Eaukaryotic cell formed by fertilization between two gametes. The genome of the zygote is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and forms all of the information necessary to construct a new individual.

The earliest development stage of multicellular organisms.


Haploid cell (contains ONE allele) that fuses with another gamete to form a zygote.


A fixed point on a chromosome, such as the location of a gene.

A diploid cell containing two alleles at the same locus are homozygous in respect to that gene. Ones that do not contain the same allele at that locus are heterozygous in respect to that gene.


DNA molecule containing, in part or whole, the encoded genome of an organism.


A cell that contains two copies of each chromosome.

Humans are diploid organisms.


Cell division which reduces the number of chromosomes by half, producing four haploid cells.All four of these meiotic



All four of these meiotic

All four of these meiotic

All four of these meiotic products can be used form gametes, which fuse to form a zygote during the process of fertilization.


A cell containing half the usual number of chromosomes. Formed during meiosis.


Part of the cell cycle where replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

Preceeded by S stage of interphase (replication), succeeded by cytokenisis (formation of two distinct cells)



Chain of nucleotides carrying genetic information

DNA nitrogenous base pairs

Cytosine : Guanine

Cytosine : GuanineAdenine : Thymine

Adenine : Thymine

Directional selection

Mode of natural selection where an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing allele frequency to shift in favor of that phenotype.

Normalizing selection

Fitness decreases with more extreme alleles, reducing their frequency and increasing the frequency of alleles that are closer to the center of the distribution

Balancing selection

Multiple alleles are actively maintained in the gene pool


The production of offspring which has different traits than either of the parents

Crossing over

The exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes that results in recombination in chromosomes during sexual reproduction


The law of segregation states that for every trait there exist two alleles, which separate during meiosis, such that each gamete contains only one of the alleles

Sex-linked trait

A trait associated with a gene that is only carried by either the male or female parent.

Genetic drift

Change in frequency of an allele from random chance; normally neutral mutations.

Gene flow

The transfer of genes or alleles from one population to another, such as the migration of birds.


The study of how natural selection impacts human social behaviors

Direct fitness

An individuals fitness

Indirect fitness

The effects an individual has on the fitness of it's relatives

Inclusive fitness

Absolute ability to propegate genes to the next generation

Kin selection

Evolutionary strategy that favors the reproductive success of an individuals relatives over everything else, including it's own reproductive success and life.

Coefficient of relatedness

Chance that a relative contains alleles that an individual has (1/2 ^ distance)