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41 Cards in this Set

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Weather related disasters

doubled over past 20 years, 400 per year




90 mil people require emergency assistance




injury, property loss, exposure to epidemics, disease, shortage of food and water

global weirdness

the contradictory changes like extreme flooding but also extreme drought




causes skepticism in common people about global warming




erratic weather

climate turmoil

erratic weather




CO2 and other greenhouse gases are good but theyhave transformed into threats due totheir increase in quantity


Monticello

plantation that used to grow tobacco




microcosm of global climate change




§ Abundance of plant diseas and pests


§ New weeds


§ Lots of bean beetles, leafhoppers,spider mites


§Tourble with fruit production§ Amazing/erratic storms§ Forests get destroyed (diseas and pests)·


All this because its been really hot

El Nino (what is it?)

a global ocean-atmosphere interactive phenomenon reflecting the important ways in which oceans and the atmosphere around earth interact




temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical eastern pacific ocean




La nina is cold water la nino is warm




happens every 2 to 7 years




lasts 9 months to 2 years




natural but global warming increases frequency

El Nino (consequencs worldwide)

increased rain in andean states




drought in indonesia, leading to forest fires and air pollution




more hurricanes




increased water borne diseases




harms small countries dependent on agriculture and fisheries as a source of food

El Nino (consequences USA)

o Floods and mud slides in western USA


o Wet winters/floods in southeastern states


o Decreased hurricanes in the gulf


o Increased hurricanes in southwestern states o Mild winters in northeastern states


o Increased diseases in southern states

Glaciers

made up of fallen snow that compresses into large ice masses




store about 75% of world freshwater




have the ability to move




flow like slow rivers




landmass of glaciers is 500k km or 10% of earth




can be found globally not just poles




Jorge Montt glacier is losing more than half a mile a year

ice shelves

floating ice sheets instead of grounded ice




much of antarctica is coverred by these




extend into the sea off a land mass




worldwide downward trend in ice shelves




antarctica has been warming since the 50s




does not contribute to ocean rise




when melting off, increases glacier flow off the continent increases cause its not impeded




Larson B ice shelf = larget ice shelf loss in recent decades

warming of Antarctica

warming was steady for 500 years until now where its warming can only be explained by human induced activities




if ice shelf collapse is as severe as last ice age, sea levels would rise 45 feet







arctic ice melt

temperature is higher now than it has been in the past 2000




inevitably will see an ice free arctic during summer months




arctic sea ice is important cause is reflects sunlight back out into space where as dark ocean water abosorbs most sunlight




opens up more areas to drill for oil which we then burn and melt more ice




sea ice melting does not increase sea level but land ice will




Greenland is melting 3x faster than in 1990



arctic snow melt

snow melts faster than ice




reflects sunlight back into space




hastnes permafrost melt which results in more forest fires and more rapid sea ice melt





Permafrost (what is it)

Any rock or soil material that has remained below freezing for two or more years




has nothing to do with percentage of ice




stores massice ammounts of carbon




underlies 12 to 18% of the exposed lan surface in northern hemisphere




seasonally frozen ground covers about 55%





drunken forests

trees planted in permafrost that fall over or bend when permafrost melts

Permafrost effects

Alaska has the fastest landscape change




cracks in permafrost release carbon




carbon emmissions of permafrost are not included in international energy agency projections




sunlight accelerates the conversion of ancient carbon into carbon dioxide gas by 40%




threat to infrastructure(stuff on tops gets fooked)




melted permafrost areas release large quantities of methane



Inuit community of Sach Harbor

vulnerable to melting sea ice




animals they rely on are migrating farther north (seals)




melting permafrost affects foundation of homes




frequent and severe storms




rising sea levels cause displacement



rising oceans

8 inches high in 2012 than 1900




12 inches per century




potentially rise over 3 feet by 2100 cause ice sheet melting




puts people who live near shore at risk




local contamination of well water




making aquifers salty




increase extreme storms every decade




90 million people live in cities by the water vulnerable to rising sea levels




does not affect everywhere evenly (waterbed analogy)





cause of rising oceans

thermal expansion :as sea water increases in volume because of ocean temperature rises, lower density



flows of melt: water from the ice and snow of glaciers, ice sheets and other land ice that is vanishing across the planet from greenland to the himalayas


heat dome over greenland

burst of unusually warm air




an anomoly over the long history of earth but has actually happened 7 years in a row





The village of Tirana

poor community in El Salvador


tiny rise of sea level completely killed off 1000ft of mangroves making it immpossilble to catch crabs which they rely on to sell




projected to lose 10 to 28% of its coastal territories in the next century as a result of rising seas




only 2% of El salvador's original forest remain

Floods

3.7 million us residents in 2150 coastal areas could be battered by damaging floods




floods are the worst of all natural disasters




went from 19 milion deaths per 5 years to 131 million




types: flash, river, urban, inundation, storm surge

Sinking islands

marshall islands(salty wells and eroded coastlines




tuvalu - accelerated ocean level rise




maldives - most vulnerable island nation, lowest country on earth. no more than 5 ft above see level



Dessertification and land degredation

15 billion acres of land in the world are dryland of which 2.5 billion acres oare naturally hyperarid desert




human land use practices + climate change




caused by drought and reduced freshwater availability




heavy rains can even contribute by weakening soils




ties in with rise of sea level and salt-water intrusion




dryland soils contain over a quarter of all otf the organic carbon stores in the world as well as nearly all inorganic carbon




4% of total global emissions are generated in drylands




encroachment of deserts can displace millions of people




sahel has become prone to drought and desertification due to overgrazing and rising temps

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)

review program created to assess consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and what actions need to be taken




most alarming process targeted by MA is desertification or land degredation

Food production

europe 2003: heat waves killed 50k peopl and decreased harvests of wheat, animal fodder and fruit by 33%




high temperatures can cause some plants to grow faster but reduce fertility




6 degrees raise will lower crop yields by 20 to 40%




25mil more children will be malnourished in 2050 because of climate change




agricultural output will decline worldwide

insects and pests

thrive in the heat and will see population growth




pests that damage crop (soybean in japan) are reproducing more rapidly




farmers use more pesticides which is bad




more breeding cycles in a year for insects and pests (volinism)




200 species of moths have added an extra generation during summer




pests migrating faster, not enough time for farmers to adapt




plant diseases thrive in the warmer temperatures and increased rainfall









gender climate change and food

availability on food will affect women more heavily




women suffer more from poverty hunger and malnutrition




division of labor becomes re-enforced due to additional work and changes in environment brought on by a disaster





heat waves

10 degrees or more above average




heat waves kill more americans than any other type of natural disaster




1000 people per year




warm nights don't let the body cool off




2003 was the hottest summer in europe in 500 years




topsoil becomes eroded




dust bowl in 1936 and 2012 were two hot years





Fire

2012 was one of the worst on record for forest fires




9 million acres of forest burned in the us in 2012




fire season lasts 75 days longer than it did 40 years ago




new places are burning that never have before because of earlier snow melt









heat island effect

describes built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas




evaporating water carries away heat




city building warms the climate




cities heat up faster than non cities




surface temperature vary more than air termp during the day but are pretty similar at night




water maintains a fairly constant temp day and night due to its high heat capacity





low income inner city vulnerabilities

•1) poorer quality housing stocks;


2)heightened population densities and residential crowding


3)income disparities that limit access to protective resources


4)elevated prevalence of preexisting and chronic diseases


5)concentrations of vulnerable groups


6)limited access to health care and adaptive information8^4

air conditioning

greatly reduces chance of death on hot days




yet contributes to the warming of the planet by using electricity

Lousiville Heat Island

Warming twice the rate of Earth generally




increasing temp .5 degree per decade




excessive heat days expected to triple




dark materials in the city contribute to the heat increase




cooling vegetation is being replaces by buildings roads and parking lots




planting more trees would produce a biological air conditioning effect





Ocean acidification

CO2 dissolves in the ocean to make carbonic acid which has increased over the past 150 years




can disrupt the entire marine food web





Tatoosh Island

off of the coast of Washington State




disturbing population decline across species




related to declines in the water's ph, which changes when excess carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere and the water absorbs it




small organisms are finding it more difficult to survive which casuses a chain reaction





Shifting/Falling seafood sources

oceans are in danger of becoming oxygen depleted and hostile to fish and shellfish




with increased temp, overturning circulation in the deep ocean decreased




new england cod and founder depletion is due to overfishing AND changing ocean




fish are migrating towards deeper waters





biodiversity and why its important

genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity




greater species diversity ensure natural sustainability for all life forms and healthy ecosystems




medical discovery, economic development, and adaptive responses to things like climate change




governments protecting one speices can lead to rise and decline of other species





how global climate change negatively impacts biodiversity

loss and destruction of habitat




disruptions of ecosystem composition




introduction of non-native species




over-exploitation




pollution and contamination




ocean rise and loss of wetland species




drought




warmer temperatures promote infectious diseases




ocean acidification and shellfish corals




some species thrive in warmer conditions putting pressure on host species







Ethics

Doesmowing the lawn or driving a fuel-inefficient car in Storrs, CT, have ethicalimplications for the people living in low-lying areas of Bangladesh? ؓ\




requires the most complicated and intrusive global agreement ever negotiated




people avoid climate change cause they are focused on the now





false skepticism arguments

the planet cant be warming when there is several feer of snow




global warming has stopped and the earth has begun to cool




changes on the sun are to blame for global warming, the sunis getting hotter




CO2 is not a pollutant




its a big conspiracy




It's not even that harmful, the warmth is good




antarctica is gaining ice




climate models are unreliable and full of assumptions




not everyone agrees (97% do actually)

5 key concepts

Vulnerability




Ecocrisis/pluralea interactions




Adaptibility




Ecosyndemic




Resiliency