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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Weather related disasters

doubled over past 20 years, 400 per year

90 mil people require emergency assistance

injury, property loss, exposure to epidemics, disease, shortage of food and water

global weirdness

the contradictory changes like extreme flooding but also extreme drought

causes skepticism in common people about global warming

erratic weather

climate turmoil

erratic weather

CO2 and other greenhouse gases are good but theyhave transformed into threats due totheir increase in quantity


plantation that used to grow tobacco

microcosm of global climate change

§ Abundance of plant diseas and pests

§ New weeds

§ Lots of bean beetles, leafhoppers,spider mites

§Tourble with fruit production§ Amazing/erratic storms§ Forests get destroyed (diseas and pests)·

All this because its been really hot

El Nino (what is it?)

a global ocean-atmosphere interactive phenomenon reflecting the important ways in which oceans and the atmosphere around earth interact

temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical eastern pacific ocean

La nina is cold water la nino is warm

happens every 2 to 7 years

lasts 9 months to 2 years

natural but global warming increases frequency

El Nino (consequencs worldwide)

increased rain in andean states

drought in indonesia, leading to forest fires and air pollution

more hurricanes

increased water borne diseases

harms small countries dependent on agriculture and fisheries as a source of food

El Nino (consequences USA)

o Floods and mud slides in western USA

o Wet winters/floods in southeastern states

o Decreased hurricanes in the gulf

o Increased hurricanes in southwestern states o Mild winters in northeastern states

o Increased diseases in southern states


made up of fallen snow that compresses into large ice masses

store about 75% of world freshwater

have the ability to move

flow like slow rivers

landmass of glaciers is 500k km or 10% of earth

can be found globally not just poles

Jorge Montt glacier is losing more than half a mile a year

ice shelves

floating ice sheets instead of grounded ice

much of antarctica is coverred by these

extend into the sea off a land mass

worldwide downward trend in ice shelves

antarctica has been warming since the 50s

does not contribute to ocean rise

when melting off, increases glacier flow off the continent increases cause its not impeded

Larson B ice shelf = larget ice shelf loss in recent decades

warming of Antarctica

warming was steady for 500 years until now where its warming can only be explained by human induced activities

if ice shelf collapse is as severe as last ice age, sea levels would rise 45 feet

arctic ice melt

temperature is higher now than it has been in the past 2000

inevitably will see an ice free arctic during summer months

arctic sea ice is important cause is reflects sunlight back out into space where as dark ocean water abosorbs most sunlight

opens up more areas to drill for oil which we then burn and melt more ice

sea ice melting does not increase sea level but land ice will

Greenland is melting 3x faster than in 1990

arctic snow melt

snow melts faster than ice

reflects sunlight back into space

hastnes permafrost melt which results in more forest fires and more rapid sea ice melt

Permafrost (what is it)

Any rock or soil material that has remained below freezing for two or more years

has nothing to do with percentage of ice

stores massice ammounts of carbon

underlies 12 to 18% of the exposed lan surface in northern hemisphere

seasonally frozen ground covers about 55%

drunken forests

trees planted in permafrost that fall over or bend when permafrost melts

Permafrost effects

Alaska has the fastest landscape change

cracks in permafrost release carbon

carbon emmissions of permafrost are not included in international energy agency projections

sunlight accelerates the conversion of ancient carbon into carbon dioxide gas by 40%

threat to infrastructure(stuff on tops gets fooked)

melted permafrost areas release large quantities of methane

Inuit community of Sach Harbor

vulnerable to melting sea ice

animals they rely on are migrating farther north (seals)

melting permafrost affects foundation of homes

frequent and severe storms

rising sea levels cause displacement

rising oceans

8 inches high in 2012 than 1900

12 inches per century

potentially rise over 3 feet by 2100 cause ice sheet melting

puts people who live near shore at risk

local contamination of well water

making aquifers salty

increase extreme storms every decade

90 million people live in cities by the water vulnerable to rising sea levels

does not affect everywhere evenly (waterbed analogy)

cause of rising oceans

thermal expansion :as sea water increases in volume because of ocean temperature rises, lower density

flows of melt: water from the ice and snow of glaciers, ice sheets and other land ice that is vanishing across the planet from greenland to the himalayas

heat dome over greenland

burst of unusually warm air

an anomoly over the long history of earth but has actually happened 7 years in a row

The village of Tirana

poor community in El Salvador

tiny rise of sea level completely killed off 1000ft of mangroves making it immpossilble to catch crabs which they rely on to sell

projected to lose 10 to 28% of its coastal territories in the next century as a result of rising seas

only 2% of El salvador's original forest remain


3.7 million us residents in 2150 coastal areas could be battered by damaging floods

floods are the worst of all natural disasters

went from 19 milion deaths per 5 years to 131 million

types: flash, river, urban, inundation, storm surge

Sinking islands

marshall islands(salty wells and eroded coastlines

tuvalu - accelerated ocean level rise

maldives - most vulnerable island nation, lowest country on earth. no more than 5 ft above see level

Dessertification and land degredation

15 billion acres of land in the world are dryland of which 2.5 billion acres oare naturally hyperarid desert

human land use practices + climate change

caused by drought and reduced freshwater availability

heavy rains can even contribute by weakening soils

ties in with rise of sea level and salt-water intrusion

dryland soils contain over a quarter of all otf the organic carbon stores in the world as well as nearly all inorganic carbon

4% of total global emissions are generated in drylands

encroachment of deserts can displace millions of people

sahel has become prone to drought and desertification due to overgrazing and rising temps

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)

review program created to assess consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and what actions need to be taken

most alarming process targeted by MA is desertification or land degredation

Food production

europe 2003: heat waves killed 50k peopl and decreased harvests of wheat, animal fodder and fruit by 33%

high temperatures can cause some plants to grow faster but reduce fertility

6 degrees raise will lower crop yields by 20 to 40%

25mil more children will be malnourished in 2050 because of climate change

agricultural output will decline worldwide

insects and pests

thrive in the heat and will see population growth

pests that damage crop (soybean in japan) are reproducing more rapidly

farmers use more pesticides which is bad

more breeding cycles in a year for insects and pests (volinism)

200 species of moths have added an extra generation during summer

pests migrating faster, not enough time for farmers to adapt

plant diseases thrive in the warmer temperatures and increased rainfall

gender climate change and food

availability on food will affect women more heavily

women suffer more from poverty hunger and malnutrition

division of labor becomes re-enforced due to additional work and changes in environment brought on by a disaster

heat waves

10 degrees or more above average

heat waves kill more americans than any other type of natural disaster

1000 people per year

warm nights don't let the body cool off

2003 was the hottest summer in europe in 500 years

topsoil becomes eroded

dust bowl in 1936 and 2012 were two hot years


2012 was one of the worst on record for forest fires

9 million acres of forest burned in the us in 2012

fire season lasts 75 days longer than it did 40 years ago

new places are burning that never have before because of earlier snow melt

heat island effect

describes built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas

evaporating water carries away heat

city building warms the climate

cities heat up faster than non cities

surface temperature vary more than air termp during the day but are pretty similar at night

water maintains a fairly constant temp day and night due to its high heat capacity

low income inner city vulnerabilities

•1) poorer quality housing stocks;

2)heightened population densities and residential crowding

3)income disparities that limit access to protective resources

4)elevated prevalence of preexisting and chronic diseases

5)concentrations of vulnerable groups

6)limited access to health care and adaptive information8^4

air conditioning

greatly reduces chance of death on hot days

yet contributes to the warming of the planet by using electricity

Lousiville Heat Island

Warming twice the rate of Earth generally

increasing temp .5 degree per decade

excessive heat days expected to triple

dark materials in the city contribute to the heat increase

cooling vegetation is being replaces by buildings roads and parking lots

planting more trees would produce a biological air conditioning effect

Ocean acidification

CO2 dissolves in the ocean to make carbonic acid which has increased over the past 150 years

can disrupt the entire marine food web

Tatoosh Island

off of the coast of Washington State

disturbing population decline across species

related to declines in the water's ph, which changes when excess carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere and the water absorbs it

small organisms are finding it more difficult to survive which casuses a chain reaction

Shifting/Falling seafood sources

oceans are in danger of becoming oxygen depleted and hostile to fish and shellfish

with increased temp, overturning circulation in the deep ocean decreased

new england cod and founder depletion is due to overfishing AND changing ocean

fish are migrating towards deeper waters

biodiversity and why its important

genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity

greater species diversity ensure natural sustainability for all life forms and healthy ecosystems

medical discovery, economic development, and adaptive responses to things like climate change

governments protecting one speices can lead to rise and decline of other species

how global climate change negatively impacts biodiversity

loss and destruction of habitat

disruptions of ecosystem composition

introduction of non-native species


pollution and contamination

ocean rise and loss of wetland species


warmer temperatures promote infectious diseases

ocean acidification and shellfish corals

some species thrive in warmer conditions putting pressure on host species


Doesmowing the lawn or driving a fuel-inefficient car in Storrs, CT, have ethicalimplications for the people living in low-lying areas of Bangladesh? ؓ\

requires the most complicated and intrusive global agreement ever negotiated

people avoid climate change cause they are focused on the now

false skepticism arguments

the planet cant be warming when there is several feer of snow

global warming has stopped and the earth has begun to cool

changes on the sun are to blame for global warming, the sunis getting hotter

CO2 is not a pollutant

its a big conspiracy

It's not even that harmful, the warmth is good

antarctica is gaining ice

climate models are unreliable and full of assumptions

not everyone agrees (97% do actually)

5 key concepts


Ecocrisis/pluralea interactions