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68 Cards in this Set

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Inequality
The degree to which culturally valued material and social rewards are given disproportionately to individuals, families or other kinds of groups.
What are the three main rewards?
Wealth, power, prestige
Morton Fried
Identified three types of societies based on degrees of inequality. (1967)
Which society did humans begin with?
Egalitarian
What is the temporal order in which the inequality forms were developed?
Egalitarian-ranked-stratified (ERS)
What are some egalitarian groups?
Mobile hunting and gathering people such as the Inuit, !Kung, Hadza, BaMbuti and Aka
In 1982, what did James Woodburn discover about why wealth is distributed in egalitarian societies. Three reasons.
1. Mobility makes it hard to transport wealth.
2. Foragers place value on reciprocity which helps redistribute wealth.
3. Bilateral kinship allows many areas to exploit resources, so there are options to leave and go elsewhere.
What is an example of a foraging society that is not egalitarian?
Native Americans of the NW Coast.
What are headmen?
In foraging bands - Informal leaders whose decisions are respected because others defer to their age or skill at particular activities or because they have spiritual powers.
Tikopia's ranking system
1200 people, divided into four patriclans, each with its own authoritative chief.
How were heads of patrilineal Tikopian clans determined?
Oldest living male descendant of man who founded linage 4-6 generations prior.
Tikopian clans
One senior clan, to which the junior clans had budded off. The noble clan selects leader from noble clan for govern all clans. The leaders had more prestige, but not wealth.
Stratum of death
Most people die in the stratum of their birth.
Caste endogamy and class marriage
Most castes require individuals to marry within their group, whereas classes allow mobility for marriage.
Varna
Large inclusive categories to which the castes are placed. The bottom class is the untouchables which are not apart of Varna.
Four reasons why large differences arose between groups
Conquest warfare, large-scale co-operation, agriculture, control over scarce resources.
20th Century China's leader ruled using what?
Mandate of Heaven
In Bunyoro, what was the health of the ruler associated with?
The prosperity of the kingdom
Mana
Supernatural power endowed upon the nobility of ancient Hawaii
Functional Theory of Inequality
Society must be unequal to offer rewards for hard work and talent to be exercised.
Conflict Theory of Inequality
Society does not benefit from stratification and it ultimately causes talented workers at the bottom to not live up to their potential.
Rituals are held for two reasons
Concious and calendrical purposes.
Superstition
Something someone else believes but you do not.
Intellectual Approach to Religion
Individuals want explanations for the world around them
James Frazer
Magic-religion-science

Said that magic is based on two logical principles or assumptions.
Imitative and contagious.
Clifford Geertz
Humanist Theorist says that religion makes the world meaningful for people
Stewart Guthrie
People see the world anthropomorphically, meaning we attribute human behavior to non living things. If enemy prays to storm god, why take the chance not to?
Psychological approach to Religion
Helps people cope psychologically with times of trouble, stress and anxiety.
Malinowski
Religion gives people confidence despite best efforts. Coping.
The Dobu of Melanesia
Human bodies have a ghostly form, seen as a shadow or reflection, and once dead, the ghosts go to the Hill of the Dead
Kwaio of Soloman Islands
Wives are polluting and sometimes wives are killed if a man died of illness
Sociological Approach
Religion instills and maintains common values, leads to increased conformity to cultural norms, promotes cohesion and cooperation, promises eternal rewards for good deeds and eternal damnation for evil acts and so forth.
Durkeheim
Religion promotes social solidarity
Sorcery
The performance of rites and spells intended to cause supernatural harm to others.
Navajo witches
Worst imaginable sins
Nyakyusa Witches
Motivated by lust for food
Azande witches
Possess an inherited substance that leaves their bodies at night and eat their victims
Ibibio Witches
Witches operate by removing the soul of their enemies and placing it in an animal.
Lugbara witches
Always men, walk around at night disguised as rats or other nocturnal animals.
Witchcraft Cognitive and Sociobiological interpretations
The use of psychic power alone to cause harm to others.
Cognitive - says that witchcraft explains unfortunate events.

Sociobiological - Helps reinforce norms and values that allow harmony between people. Witches are the antithesis of cultural ideals.
Andrew Wallace
Classified religions based off cults - an organized system of beliefs and practices pertaining to control or worship of specific supernatural powers. Evolutionary matching of cults is rough and general. No specific cults to types of societies.
Individualistic cults
Each individual has a personal relationship with one or more supernatural powers
Shamanistic cults
Shamans are believed to have relationships with the supernatural that ordinary people lack. Occurs in foraging bands and horticultural tribes such as Inuit, !Kung, and Yanomamo
Communal cults
Members of a group gather for the performance of rituals that they believe benefit the group as a whole. Have a leader.

Ancestral cults - communication with ancestors. Lugbara people - patrilineal. Ndembu - matrilineal.

Totemism - humans have a special mythical relationship with natural objects such as animals, plants and sometimes nonliving things.
Ecclesiastical cults
Full time religious practitioners who form a religious bureaucracy. Occur in stratified cheifdom or states.
Jivaro Shamans of Ecuador
Man becomes shaman by performing rituals such as drinking hallucinogen for ten days and abstaining from sex. Bewitching and curing shamans. People die because bewitching shamans shoot more magical darts than the curing shaman can handle. Pasuk and spirit bird.
Zuni
Mexican medicine societies.
Vision quests
For individualistic cults
Revitalization movements current in societies where three conditions occur
1. Rapid change
2. Foreign domination
3. The perception of relative deprivation
Melanesian Cargo Cults
Melanesians were obsessed with wealth and thought Euro cargo was made by god. Prophets sprang up to tell the people who to obtain cargo.
The Garian Cargo cults
Thought that if they turned to Christianity, they would obtain goods. It did not work so prophets came and told them to destroy their items to get closer to Jesus.
Polynesians who practiced tattooing
Tongans, Samoans, Marquesans, Tahitians, the Maori or New Zealand, and most other Polynesian people
Maori facial tattoo
Moko. Women were tattooed on lip, chin, near time of marriage. Male designs related to hereditary status, place of birth and achievement of battle.
Alan Lomax
Found that dances were formalized versions of everyday activity. Dance and song style was correlated with complexity of society.
Molimo
BaMbuti Pygmies ritual performance to awake the forest.
Plains Indian beadwork
Made by women and berdaches (men who dressed and acted like women). Painted geometric designs
Parafleches
Plains Indian hide containers designed by women. Men painted people, horses, animals, and supernatural beings.
Huipuli
Clothing worn by Guatemalan women signifying she is a Maya
Ethnic Group
A named social category of people based on perceptions of shared social experience or ancestry.
Hierarchical nesting
An ethnic group forms a larger collection of ethic groups based on social magnitiude
Origin myth
Sharing history about a group's origin.
Ethnic boundary marker
Identify the members to one another, and to demonstrate identity from non members.
Hugenots
French protestants who fled France and were absorbed into England culture.
Ethnogeneis
Emergence of new ethnic group.
1. Portions of an existing ethnic group splits away and forms a new ethnic group
2. Members of two or more existing ethnic groups fuse, forming a new ethnic group.
Afrikaans
Dutch settled into Cape of Good Hope and developed their own dialect called Afrikaans and identity, Boers.
Transnationals
Members of an ethnic community located outside their country of origin and homeland.
Weber
Wealth, power, status
Moore and David
Social scientists who justified clas division