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26 Cards in this Set

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The Indian act

- Deals with people


- determines who is Indian and who is not

Treaties and Indian act

Treaty process designed to deal with “native land question” the “Indian act” dealt with “Indian problem”

Connections between Indian act and treaties

Indian act intricately tied to the treaty process because it regulated “status” and in order to enter treaties you have to be recognized as an Indian

What are treaties

Land claim “agreements”

When did Indian act come into law?

1876

What was the goal of the Indian act?

To make itself obsolete

What was one of the most important things that the Indian act did and does?

Define who is and who isn’t Indian

How to get rid of “Indians”

- someone could either be Indian or citizen NOT both


- create registration system


- only status Indians live on reserves, those who leave lose status


- any woman who married non status man loses status


- any Indian who graduated university lost status


- any Indian who joined Canadian armed forces lost status


- voting lost status

“Indian-ness” nothing to do with heritage or blood because:

Race is cultural contraction


Arbitrary categorization:


Indian, half-breed, citizen

what were crucial technologies in the colonial project?

Treaty process & Indian act

Criminalization of “Indian-ness”

Ban ceremonies


Ban indigenous government


Traditional clothing illegal


Mandatory residential school


White lies about Indian act

Indians get school paid for, don’t pay taxes, free handouts

When we’re Métis recognized as “aboriginal people”

Canadian constitution act 1982

Supreme Court defines Métis people as

Self identification, ancestral connection to historic Métis community, community acceptance

Big “M” little “m” Métis

Direct descendants from red river basin Métis, native French or Scottish, mixed blood persons, non status persons

Métis script

Used to extinguish Métis title, individual agreements for title in exchange for land or money

The deliberate attack for the purpose of extermination of cultural identity

Ethnocide

Broken promises

-Relocation of High arctic in 1953


-HBC made money off fur trade and Inuit


-“Eskimo problem” everyone except Inuit invited to talk about problems the government saw in Inuit


-Inuit suffered, government promised better lives, did not


- they wanted to move back but had to pay transportation costs, thus trapped


-taught colonial ways


-bar shut down in 70s, resolute bay, many returned to northern bay


-never receieved apology or compensation for being moved

When we’re residential schools set up

Around 1874, formal agreement 1892

Royal commission of Aboriginal peoples (1996) grouped relocation into two types:

Administrative: state determines and justifies why group moved because of resources


Development: state wanting to develop something in that land

Davis inlet

Group of 500 from community in NFL moved so they could hunt Fish instead of caribou (1948) 70 ppl died, completely diff eco system

Examples of developmental relocation activities

Agriculture


Hydro construction


Natural resource extraction

Inuit / northern relocations

In 1934 government informed HBC that if wanted to maintain interest in North they had to have responsibility for Inuit


The transfer of “responsibility” made possible by exclusion of northern ppls from Indian act


They were relocated but had to be moved again because they were starving because of winters there was no food

Self goverment

Aboriginal self governments are designed established and administered by native people


From indigenous perspective:


Referred to as “inherent right” pre-existing right rooted in aboriginal ppl long occupation and government of land before European settlement

Number of matters not open to negotiation (self government)

1. Powers related to Canadian sovereignty, defence, external relations


2. Other national interest powers

Reserve lands in Canada

2267 reserves in Canada


Total land base 2.6 mil hectares


0.2% of total land area of Canada