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20 Cards in this Set

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What is Gender?

The Cultural meaning given to an individual's physical sex (Lang):


1. At birth label individuals as male or female; birth sex is the subsequent of your gender


2. If you are male we expect you to have masculine traits; if you are female we expect you to have feminine traits (normative theory?)


3. What constitutes masculine traits, feminine traits: the society you live in


4. Gender polarization is the hallmark of our society


- The socially and culturally produced ideas about the differences between females and males in a particular society (Lees)


-Gender differences "based on" sex differences

What is Gender identity:


Reflects a person's subjectively felt experiences of being masculine, feminine or ambivalent


-Different than sexual identity


-Diane Ehrnesaft: "your sexual identity has to do with who you get into bed with, your gender identity has to do with who you get into bed as


What is Gender Stereotypes

Society's beliefs and attitudes about what activities or behaviors are appropriate for men or women




Run like a Girl video (Gender Serotypes)
-pattern: the negative stereotypes are associated with a girl but the positive ones are associate with men
Illusionists Video (add to???)

- Increasingly , due to mass media imagery/stereotypes, both men and women are under intense pressure to look and be a certain type of man or women


- The Video: is about the body as the "finest consumer object" and the pursuit of ideal beauty around the world. Or: how corporations are getting richer by making us feel insecure about the way we look

Gender Segmentation in Advertising
Ads directed at boys/men or girls/women
2sex/2gender system in North America; does not account for everyone, for example:

1. Transsexual: refers to a person whose biological sex assigned at birth does not match their gender identity


2. Gender dysphoria: broad term used to describe phenomena such as extreme dislike of one's body; incongruity between genital anatomy (sex) and gender identity


3. Hijra of India (Geder Variance): genetic males who consider themselves a 3rd gender (not man, not women)

What is Sex?

- Biological/genetic differences between males and females (chromosomes differences)


- Physical traits that differentiate females and males

What makes someone male or female?


- in general, different chromosomes (xx or xy)


- However, intersex and gender variant/creative individuals challenge this 2 sex system

Sex vs Gender differences
To put it another way: male and female are sex categories, while masculine and feminine are gender categories
Gender Differences Hypothesis:


Men and women are more different than they are similar


-Leads to Essentialism (notion that all women/all men share certain universal experiences because of their biological similarities


-In other words, what it means to be a man or women is fixed by nature. Women are supposed to have one set of traits, men another


-Anatomy is destiny; women are reproducers, men the producers


Why Essentialism exists?

-Essentialism is alive and well in our society and leads to prescriptions and prohibitions about what men and women should know not to do based on what we think are innate sex differences


-Rather than societal constructions about what men and women should and shouldn't do

Gender and war by Lucinda J Peach

Question: Should women be combat soldiers?


The REAL questions: are men really the "warriors" and "women the nurturers" in society





Peach takes on 4 biological arguments commonly used to support the exclusion of women from combat roles/ arena of war

1. Male Strength Hypothesis:women are not strong enough (physical and/or psychological) for combat roles

2. Male Aggression Hypothesis:are mean naturally more aggressive than women

3. Women's childbearing hypothesis:pregnancy would hamper combat effectiveness

4. Male Bonding Hypothesis:women's participation in combat would reduce unit cohesion (by interfering withmale bonding and increasing fraternization)

Peach's definition of Gender Ideology:

The assumptions, prejudices stereotypes and myths about male and female natures and natural or proper sex roles and behaviors (The Male Warrior//Woman as needing Protection)




**Sex roles definition: the differential tasks/ jobs that men and women do that are assumed to be biologically determined **

The Dichotomy starts to break down...


-Could this dichotomy (male warrior/woman nurturer) be a gender construction?


-The idea of women in war may be problematic for a society that doesn't tolerate the overlap of masculine and feminine traits in an individual



The Myth of Women's Peacefulness - Sara Ruddick

Women's peacefulness is atleast as mythical as men's violence. Women have never absented themselves fromwar. Wherever battles are found and justified, whether in the vilest or noblestof causes, women on both sides of the battle lines support the militaryengagements of their sons, lovers, friends, mates. Increasingly, women areproud to fight alongside their brothers and as fiercely, in whatever battlestheir state or cause enlists them. There is nothing in a woman's genetic makeupor history that prevents her from firing a missile … if she desires this orbelieves it to be her duty

The myth of the Male Warrior - Sara Ruddick

Very few men who take partin war can be said to "make war". Most are foot soldiers and workersin the service of grand campaigns they did not design, about which they werenot consulted, and which they rarely comprehend…Those soldiers who do engage incombat are usually very young men. Many are conscripted from battles; othersfight only to escape intolerable civilian life

End of ppt 1
xxx

Movie 1: Codes of Gender

-Helps makes the "invisible visable" = gives us an analytic framework to see the traditional codes of gender


-invisible visable = helps us see the patterns of gender displays


-invisiable = the invisible are the gender displays that society has constructed