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151 Cards in this Set

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absolute dating
Method of dating that can provide an age in calender years, Potassium argon, radiocarbon, AMS, obsidian hydration, TL, Dendrochronology
Accelerator mass spectrometer: A huge scientific instrument used for sorting and counting isotopes. AMS dating allows much smaller samples to be used in archaeology
study of archaeological plant remains
the study of our human past, combining the themes of time and change, using the material remains that have survived
a dating technique based on the migration of the earth's north pole, known for the last 1000 years
the measurement of the chemical or physical properties of an artiact in oerder to solve problems of chemical composition, technology, chronology, etc. Soometimes described as "instrumental" archaeology
the objects and materials that people have made and used
a related set of different things at different sites
a term describing a flaked stone tool in which both faces or sides are retouched to make a thinner tool
the study of human remains from archaeological contexts
a special kind of elongated flake with two parallel sides and a length at least twice the width of the piece. The regular manufacture of blades characterized the upper paleolithic, with an efficient way of producing mass quantities of cutting edges
body sherd
fragment of broken pottery that does not include the rim of the vessel
bulb of percussion
a partial cone of fracture that is seen on the inner surface of flakes as a slightly rounded protrusion or bulb
correction of radiocarbon dates for the difference between calendar years and radiocarbon years
the process of putting objects into groups on the basis of shared characteristics
organization of society involving more units in society and more integration between those units
preserved ancient feces
can tell a lot about diet
The stone from which other pieces or flakes are removed
stone with microscopic crystals, formed from silicia under pressure in marine deposits, such as quartz, chert, flint
a means of human adaptation based on intelligence, experience, learning, and the use of tools; the general set of behaviors and knowledge that humans use to survive and adapt
culture change
in archaeology, innovations or modification in technology or material culture
curated tools
special-purpose implements that require specific raw materials and substantial time and labor in manufacture; can often be repaired or recycled and are normally discarded only when exhuasted
scratches and cuts on bone indicating the use of stone tools for butchering
a point with known locational coordinates and elevation; a fixed point for surveying
term referring to all the pieces of shatter and flakes produced and not used when stone tools are made; also called waste
study of human populations with a focus on size, age, and sex distribution, birth and death rates, and migration
the study of the annual growth rings of trees as a dating technique to build chronologies, house beams, useful up to 9,000, master sequence, area specific
dealing with change over time, comparing two or more time periods
the spread of new ideas or materials from one group to another
unmodified, natural items found in archaeological contexts, often plant or animal material
natural and social milieu in which human societies operate
joint ends of bones where growth occurs
archaeological study of living societies for information to help better understand the past
the detailed investigation of a group of people, traditionally non-Western, through participant observation and descriptions of practices, activities, behaviours, and beliefs
the exposure, recording, and recovery of buried materials from the past
experimental archaeology
modern experiments to reproduce artifacts, architecture, and/or techniques from the past
foreign, unusual, refers to artifacts and other materials from nonlocal sources
faunal remains
animal ecofacts found in archaeological contexts, including bone, teeth, antler, ivory, shell, scales, and the like
the permanent facilities and structures that people construct in or on the earth
a type of stone artifact produced by removing a piece from a core by chipping or knapping. Flakes are made into a variety of different kinds of tools or used for their sharp edges (without further retouching)
plants, botanical materials, in contrast to fuana, or animals
an archaeological technique for recovering charred plant remains using water and density differences between heavy and light materials in sediments, dry sediments are stirred into water and the lighter plant remains float to the top
gas chromatography-mass spectrometr: archaeometric technique for organic materials; samples in gas state separate in a column and exit sequentially to a detector that produces a spectrum of the weight and amount of the molecules
Geographic information systems: a computer program for the storage, display and analysis of geographic and spatial data; the basic concept involves the uses of overlaid maps of an area in combination with locational information and spatial analytical capabilities
Ground penetrating radar: an instrument that sends radar waves through the ground to reveal buried features
Global positioning system: a locational and navigational system for determining precise three-dimensional coordinates (longitude, latitude, elevation) of any place on the earth's surface
conventional rate for radioactivity based on the time period for the decay of half the unstable isotopes in a known quantity of material
a stone used to knock flakes from cores, part of the toolkit of flintknapper
the characteristic artifact of the paleolithic: a large, teardrop-shaped stone tool bifacially flaked to a point at one end and a broader base at the other, for general-purpose use
the explanation of human, natural, and supernatural relationships through belief, ritual, and ceremony
in situ
an object in its original position of discard or deposition, in place, primary context
one object or artifact type that appears in a number of assemblages
slightly different atoms of the same element with the same atomic number, but a different number of neutrons - used in radiocarbon dating and potassium argon dating
fire for making pottery, can be open or closed, updraft or downdraft
genealogies, lines of descent that are used to extend relationships and determine membership in a group, the relationship between individual members in society on the basis of their family ties
a generic term used for stone artifacts in archaeology and more specifically for flaked stone artifacts
measures the earth's magnetic field at an archaeological site to locate buried walls and pits
material culture
tangible, surviving evidence of human activities
minimum number of individuals
minimum number of elements
neutron activation analysis: archaeometry technique using neutron bombardment to release detectable element-specific gamma rays in samples; determine trace metals in samples at ppm to id where metal is from
a glassy rock produced from sand in volcanic conditions, used for making stone tools in the past
study of fossil plants
the study of pollen from plants for information on species, environment and climate
percussion flaking
a technique for producing stone artifacts by striking or knapping crystalline stone with a hard or soft hammer
genus-specific silicate bodies inside plants
plan view
a bird's-eye-view or top-down view of a site or region: a kind of map of the features and characteristics of a place. a standard representation of archaeological sites and areas
covering of the gametes of flowering plants released in sexual repreoduction
all of the people living at a place or in a region, in archaeology: refers to the people related through membership in the same group; or all of the items or units of interest in statistical sampling
the time in the past before written history, often synonymous with archaeology
pressure flaking
a technique for producing stone artifacts by removing flakes from a stone core by pressing with a pointed implement
primary context
an object in its original position of discard or deposition in place
projectile point
generic name for the range of shapes and materiasl used to make a charp end on weapons such as spears or darts, javelins, arrows and the like
the place of discovery or origin, where an item is from
a radioactive isotope of carbon used in dating organic material up to 58,000 years, needs to be callibrated because C-14 ratio in atmos changed over time, callibrate by comparing dendrochronology, lake varves, stalactites
remote sensing
a variety of techniques used for obtaining information about surface or buried objects: above ground include satellite imaging, radar, and map features on or near surface; below ground include radar, resistivity, magnetic properties, chemistry
rim sherd
fragment of broken pottery that includes part of the rim of the vessel
a shallow cave or overhang, defined by having a width greater than its depth
a portion of a whole, to take a part of a deposit, site, feature, or artifact for analysis
SEM: scanning electron microscope
an electric (not optical) instrument for very high magnification of microscopic structures: uses electrons instead of light to form an image
the time of year a site was occupied, part of an annual cyce, usually related to hunter-gatherer settlement patterns
an archaeological method for ordering
shell midden
a specialized kind of extractive site, a mound made up of large dumps of shell from mussels, oysters, or other species
broken pieces of pottery
accumulations of artifacts and features, representing the places where people lived or carried out certain activities
a sequence of layers in the ground
a systematic reconnaissance of the landscape for artifacts and sites on the ground through aerial photography, field walking, soil analysis, or geophysical prospecting; mapping of sites and areas using surveying instruments such as a total station or GPS
a nonplastic substance intentionally added to clay in order to reduce breakage caused by shrinkage and firing
TL: Thermoluminescence dating
technique for absolute dating based on the principle of the rate of accumulation of TL after heating, used with burned flint and clay, not very reliable due to variables in how much radiation is stored in pottery after being fired
any equipment, weapon, object, intentionally modified by humans to change the environment around them
a term describing a flaked stone tool in which only one face or side is retouched to make a sharp edge
annual layers of deposits in cold-water lakes
Archaeologists are interested in culture in context and focus on
environment, demography, ideology, technology, economy, and organization
What is significant about Trigger's work in Nubia?
demography: he estimated population size based on data from gravestones and cemetery size compared to the boundary of the village
Archaeologists get the most information on:
technology, then economy, then environment, then organization, then little on demography and less on ideology
Who was A.J. Weberman?
coined garbology, studied Bob Dylan's garbage
Who is William Rathje?
worked in landfills and got permission to look at people's garbage: discovered high beef prices, more beef waste, people do not edit trash, but they do lie in interviews
Who is James Deetz?
miners excavation in movie other people's garbage, also, proponent of emic and mental templates in artifacts
Who is Charles Fairbanks?
slave plantation giving voice to the voiceless, other people's garbage
What example is provided in the Lord of Moche at Sipan?
The effect of looting and need for protection of sites, discovery by nonexpert, atypical excavation with lots of treasure, ancestral heritage - Walter Alva
What is antiquarianism?
treasure hunting period, Howard Carter (King Tut), Hiram Bingham (Machu Picchu), Heinrich Schlieman (Troy)
What is cultural history?
ordering, classifying, understanding space and time, sequencing prehistory - v. Gordon Child (Mid Eastern prehist), James A Ford (N.Amer prehist), known for invention, difusion, migration
Who was V. Gordon Child?
known for prehistory of mid east, cultural historian
Processual Arch
scientific method, Lewis Binford (N.Amer), deduction and induction
Post-processual arch
creating an understanding of the past in context, emphasize themes over time, Ian Hodder (European)
What is the significance of the Black Earth Site?
Illinois: Demography and diet: named due to rich soil of organics, looked at food resources and burials
What is the significance of Jomon Japan?
Pottery (cord whacking) in japan, early food depended on wild things then domestication of cereals, rice later
Significance of Valley of Oaxaca?
ideology discovered from ethnoarchaology and evidence of ceremony, imported items
Significance of Harappan region
Bronze age Pakistan, Beads, economy and trade, large work shops created more generalized beads, individs made specialized beads
Significance of the tomb of qin shihuang
discovered by accident, terracotta warriors
Sig of Teotihuacan
"city of the gods" protection of ancestry, mexico - activity area, walmart
What is the significance of Monk Mound?
labor tax to make such a large mound, Mississippi
What is bonfire site?
buffallo jump site, texas example of vertical stratigraphy
What is the significance of the Reese River Valley?
David Hurst Thomas, Julian Steward, seasonal rounds, ecological zones,
Sig of great hall at Lejre
Denmark: myths and stories of Vikings led to discovery of great hall that was originally built before the Vikings!
!Kung San men and Wiessner
group identity and individual identity, ethnographic study of typing projectile points, typology depends on the people who made them
Lindow Man
painted blue green - celts, bog people, special preservation echniques
David Clarke
type defined by most typical state of a series of attributes, archaeological types are nodes of various attributes
volcanic glass, 5,000-3 bill years, amount of argon in glass is due to decay of the potassium, rate compared between argon and potassium
obsidian hydration
after hardened, absorbs water but not at a constant rate because its environment can change, good up to 800,000 years
Mayan calender
- = 5
. = 1
Historical records
practical functions of artifact, pragmatic
social context of artifact, social function, status, ie crosage, tie
ideological context of an artifact - symbols, iconography, how it is used ie crescent moon, cross
classification of artifacts based on the the mind of the producer, mental template - James Deetz, Alex Kriegar
classification of artifact based on the mind of the analyst, Irving Rouse
Dorset harpoon heads
continuous size difference so large and small in same class, residue, experimental arch, context of discovery
Pipe stems
example of relative dating techniques based on change of length and diameter of pipe over time, trends of style change, allowed relative dating of sites in New England
Scandinavian Daggers
flint copies of bronze daggers from 4500 years ago
Mayan flint work
grave goods AD 400-900, nonfunctional artistic creations as well
Solutrean points
craftmanship, not for use, very large and thin, hard to make, status good
unifacial, 3-2 mya, simple
cryptocrystalline matric
stones with microscopic matrixis, very fine grained, primarily used in lithic production
lithic production
cone of force, flake production by glancing blows, blades, burins,
focus on the edge and angle of stone tool, axes, scapers, harpoons, blade, knives, projectile points, burins, toolkit
Chaine operatoire
aquisition, preparation, forming, use and discard, currate
reasembling the broken flake of stone
robert kelly
western nevada, greatest artifact diversity is lowest mobility, curated verses expedient tools
Meer site
belgium: refitting flint waste to show single occupation, locations specialized in production and living areas, left handed verses right handed
How is pottery made: steps:
1) Collect raw materials: clay and temper (sand, shell, gravel...)
2) Prepare Paste: clean clay, add temper, wedge clay, make slip
3) Shape vessel: paddle and anvil, coil, molded, throwing (centering, opening, pulling shaping)
4) Decorate - prefire: impressed, stamped, slip coloring, burnish to polish
5) Fire
6) Decoration post firing: glaze, print transfer
7) Firing
8) Post Firing repairs
james deetz (again)
Matrilocal vs. patrilocal residence based on pottery in us
star carr
england, seasonality, Graham Clark, antlers, roe deer, red deer, year tooth growth, deer antler => winter occupation, analysis of remains of other deer and other animals => summer occupation mainly and year round, jaw dating of deer => winter occupation
Incinerator Site
Ohio, storage, year round occupation
signs of domestication
increase size, length, touching of rachis, decrease in seed thickness, increase in edible portions, development of protective husk
Abu Hureyra
uninterrupted occupation from 10,500 to 6000 BC, dawn of agriculture; sedentary villages first but hunter-gatherers, then enviro change so food sources died, cultivation of rye then later wheat lentils, legumes; at 7,500 goats and sheep, latter cattle and pigs; took 2,500 years to go from sedentary life to agriculture
Thera and wood charcoal
Showed that environment was rich in evergreen forest and olive and pomegranate trees were cultivated and cedar, yew, beech were imported so huge trade system
Windover, Florida
Preservation of earliest N. Amer burial grounds, european DNA?!, fibers and fabrics!, brain tissue
electrical resistivity testing
pass current through ground and measure resistance to show patterns where metal objects hav lower resistivity
x-ray defraction
x-rays scatter when they hit a crystal, so peaks at different elements
gas chromatography
organic material, sample converted to gas which can then be tested based on colour when certain chemicals are added
chinochorro mummies
chile, mainly infants and children, doll liek