• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the major component of the body?
what is the most expensive component of the diet?
____function in every body process?
proteins are like a pearl necklace where each pearl represents an ___ ____
amino acid
what are the 2 things involved in an anino acid structure?
amino group (-NH2)
carboxyl group (-COOH)
what the the amino acids in the MATT part of (MATT HILL VP)?
Methionine (the S amino acid)
what are the amino acids in the HILL part of (MATT HILL VP)
what are the amino acids in the VP part of (MATT HILL VP)?
phenylalanine (the aromatic aa)
what is the essential amino acid in cats?
what is the essential amino acid in birds/ reptiles?
essential amino acids means?
they are not synthesized by the body
how does a peptide bond form?
carboxyl group of aa1 condenses with amino group of aa2. loses a H2O molecule
what is the biological dogma?
transcription then translation
what are the enzymes for protein digestion in the stomach?
pepsin and HCl
what do pepsin and HCl break down specifically?
peptides/ peptones
what are the enzymes for protein digestion in the small intestine (pancreatic juice)
what do the pancreatic juice enzymes break down specifically?
tri and dipeptides
what are the enzymes for pancreatic digestion in the int. mucosa?
aminopeptidases and dipeptidases
what do the intestinal mucosa enzymes break down specifically?
free amino acids
what is the fate of dietary protein or N in Ruminants?
1. rumen undegradable protein escapes breakdown in rumen goes to abomasum
2. microbial fermentation of protein
3. microbial fermentation of NPN
what eventually happens to microbial fermentation of protein and microbial fermentatoin of NPN?
converted to bacterial protein and goes to the absomasum
Since NH3 is toxic, the liver converts it to ___, which is either: ___ or ___
recycled back to the rumen via saliva or excreted via the kidneys
what is the protein of the abomasum a mixture of?
microbial protein and RUP
what are the three types of rumen undegradeable proteins?
1. very soluble proteins
2. insoluble proteins
3. very insoluble proteins
what happens to very soluble proteins?
rapidly degraded by bugs
what happens to insoluble proteins?
remain intact in the rumen and are digested in the abomasum
what happens to very insoluble proteins?
poorly digested in the stomach and small intestines
what is the goal for RUP's
to find dietary proteins with intermediate solubility, so some of the good quality plant protein bypasses the rumen and some protein is fermented to make microbial protein
what is the application of RUP's
companies may heat-treat very soluble proteins to make intermediately soluble. However, care is taken not to overheat or it becomes very insoluble
what are the treatements of RUP's ?
mild heating, dehydration pelleting, formaldehyde treatment
why would non protein nitrogen nutrients be used?
they are a cheap source of crude protein, need readily available E sources for rumen microbes to synthesize carbon skeletons
what are 3 examples of NPN sources for ruminant diets?
1. urea
2. biuret
3. NH4 salts (e.g. lactate or phosphate)
what are 5 methods to feed NPN's?
1. add to silage or high moisture corn
2. add to mixed feed,or
3. LPS- liquid protein supplement
4. tank with lick wheel
5. put in vitamin mineral premix
what are 3 NPN points?
1. Too much NH3 is toxic
2. solubility is important
3. there are a variety of NPN sources
when proteins enter the abomasum, ___ and ___ are similar to the process in nonruminants
digestion and absorption
ruminant and nonruminants have similar ____ and ____ mechanisms
enzymes and transport mechanisms
what are the three fates of AA after absorption?
1. tissue protein synthesis
2. synthesis of enzymes, hormones, and other metabolites
3. deamination and transamination
what is the main objective in tissue protein synthesis?
to replace damaged proteins
what is deamination and transamination?
breaks down carbon skeleton of non-essential aa. to change into essential aa. during starvation
what are the 3 things the liver does in N metabolism?
1. syn. many proteins
2. supplies aa. to the circulatoin when needed
3. processes excess N for circulation
what is the main storage site for aa?
what is the site of disposal and of excess N ?
after a protein- rich meal, aa are taken up where?
in the gut
the bulk of aa pass thorugh the liver in ___ ____
free form
after a protein rich meals, ___ ___ extract aa.
peripheral muslces
excess aa not used for protein synthesis are ____
degraded (increase liver catabolic enzymes)
what organ gets the first "crack" at absorbed aa due to the portal vein
what is deamination?
aa-> carbon skeletons + NH3 . process for aa degradation and removal, needed for the synthesis of non-essential aa.
how much nonessential AA make up tissue protein?
If in short supply, cells will make up the deficit because ____, ____, and ____ are available
amino N, C skeletons, and energy
transamination is a freely reversible reaction that requires _____
vitamin B6
transamination interconverts a pair of AA and a pair of ___ ___
keto acids
each tranaminase is specific for one pair of ____, but nonspecific for the other pair.
most aa., but not all undergo _____
the urea cycle is a biochemical pathway in hepatocytes that takes _____ and converts it to ____ for export to blood and subsequent excretion of the kidneys
ammonia to urea
do birds and reptiles have a urea cycle?
does peptide transport rewure energy in protein digestion of the ruminant?
does amino acid transport require energy in protein digestion of the ruminant?
yes, sometimes
it is favorable for the animal to absorb ___ and ___ peptides opposed to _______
di and tripeptides
free amino acids
uric acid is very ____ and also __-__
very soluble and non-toxic
the dietary protein requirement is really a(n) ____ ___ requirement for tissues?
amino acid
about 50% of CP requiremtne is ___ aa. requirement and 50% of CP requirement is ___
essential and non-essential
what is the barrel stave analogy saying about the water held in the barrel is proportional to?
water held in the barrel is proportional to capacity to allow for a protein synthesis
what is the most limiting aa. in the barrel stave method?
what is the 2nd most limiting aa. in the barrel stave method?
what is the 3rd most limiting aa. in the barrel stave method?
so for the barrel stave analogy, you would first add ___, then more ___, and add more ___ to meet the required amount.
TRP first
maintenance needs reflect AA pattern of the ___
production needs reflect AA pattern of ____
product (eggs, milk)
how would someone determine amino acid requirement?
growth trial- growth rate, eggs, or milk production
if AA needs are below the requirement, then you can supplement with the synthetic aa __, ___, and ___ because they are generally the limiting 3.
what are the 3 limiting amino acids to produce milk?
what is the first limiting amino acid in most diets for pigs?
what are the first and second limiting aa in poultry diets?
methionine and lysine
what is the most limiting amino acids in protein feeds for horses?
lysine and methionine
animal protein sources are greater in ___ and ___ than plant.
quality and cost
what are 5 examples of animal protein sources?
1. fishmeal
2. meatscraps
3. meat and bone meal
4. poultry by product meal
5. milk products
what does fishmeal offer?
excellent aa. pattern, good minerals source, and some vit's
what do meatscraps offer?
good aa. pattern, good source of minerals (bone)
animal protein sources are widely used in the ____ but not in ___ diets because of cost and prion disease.
pet food industry
farm animal diets
do plant protein sources contain vit. B12?
how much CP is in soybean meal?
44% with hulls
50% without hulls
soybean meal ____ inhibitor which inhibits protein digestion
___ inhibitor is destroyed by mild heating (roasting)
cotton seed meal contains ___ which is toxic to NR
peanut meal has poor ___ pattern, may have ___.
AA pattern
what are 5 examples of plant proteins?
1. soybean meal
2. cottonseed meal
3. peanut meal
4. sunflower seed meal
5. canola meal
what are some other options for dietary proteins (3).
1. alfalfa protein extract
2. single cell protein (not cost effective)
3. recycled poultry waste- especially for R
what are 3 examples of new plant species/ varieties that are other options for dietary protein?
1. high lysine corn
2. low trypsin inhibitor soybeans
3. high protein grains
what are consequences for a low protein diet?
reduced growth rate, increased fat, low milk or egg production, poor feed efficiency
what are consequences of severe protein deficiency?
reduced growth rate, deficiency signs aa imbalance
what are consequences of excess protein in the diet?
high feed costs, normal growth, enlarged kidneys, excess water intake
what are the consequences of a diet with an excess of individual AA?
poor growth
what are the consequences of adequate AA pattern but low energy in diet?
reduced growth because AA are degraded and used as E source
rumen microflora ferments most diet N, so a mixture of ____ and ___ moves into the abomasum.
microbial protein and RUP
diet proteins are hydrolyzed by digestive proteases and are absorbed as ___ or ___
proteins or aa.