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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gross/Macroscopic Anatomy
examines large, visible structures
Superficial Anatomy
locating structures on or near the body suface
Anatomical Position
standing, feet together, facing forward, arms at sides, palms facing forward
laying down, face up in anatomical position
laying down, face down in anatomical position
Dorsal Body Cavity
space inside skull (cranial cavity), & vertebral cavity (spinal chord)
Ventral Body Cavity
contains thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities (separated by diaphragm)
2 or more atoms joined by strong bonds
2 or more atoms of different elements joined by strong or weak bonds
Study of cells
study of tissues
Levels of Organization (smallest-largest)
1, Chemical/Molecular level
2. Cellular
3. Tissue
4. Organ
5. Organ System
6. Organism
A stable environment, "normal" range. Continual adaptation, Extremes disrupt homeostasis
Sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change
Control Center/Integration Center
receives & processes the info supplied by receptor, & sends out commands
Cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center (opposes or enhances stimulus)
Positive Feedback
Initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates the original change in conditions. Body is moved away from homeostasis. Ex.: blood clotting, labor/birth
Negative Feedback
The response of the effector negates the stimulus, return to homeostasis. ex. Thermoregulation
Autoregulation/Intrinsic Regulation
occurs when a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjusts its activities automatically in response to some environmental change
Extrinsic Regulation
results from the activities of the nervous & endocrine systems. (Endocrine system creates hormones)
patient's perception of problems
physical manifestation of a disease (can be measured/observed)
Subatomic Particles & Charges
proton (+)
neutron (neutral)
electron (-)
What does the nucleus contain?
Protons & neutrons
Define electron cloud
electrons that travel around the nucleus at a high speed w/i a spherical area
When are atoms inert?
When their electron shell is full
How many electrons can each energy level hold?
1st level: 2 electrons
Next 2 levels: up to 8 electrons
Do electrons have more energy when they are closer or farther away from the nucleus?
farther from=more energy
Define ions
atoms or molecules that carry an electric charge (pos., neg.)
Define cation
positively charged ion, electron donor
Define anion
negatively charged ion, electron acceptor
Define ionic bond
chemical bonds b/w anions & cations (electrical attraction), intermediate strength
Define covalent bond
sharing of pairs of electrons, strong bonds
Define single covalent bond
sharing of 1 pair of electrons
Define nonpolar covalent bond
equal sharing of electrons
Define hydrogen bonds
bonds b/w adjacent molecules (not atoms), slightly positive & slightly negative portions of polar molecules attracted to one another. weakest bonds.
Define decomposition/catabolism
breaks down chemical bonds
ex. hydrolysis
Define synthesis/anabolism
forms chemical bonds
ex. dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction)
Define exchange reaction
involved decomposition, then synthesis
Define inorganic compound
molecules not based on carbon & hydrogen in combination
ex, CO (carbon monoxide), carbon dioxide, O2, H20, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride
What are the properties of water?
1. solubility
2. high heat capacity
3. reactivity
4. lubrication
Define solution
uniform mixture of 2 or more substances
Define solvent
liquid component in which molecules are dispersed
Define solute
dispersed substance in solution
Define hydrophilic compounds
interacts w/ water (water soluble)
includes ions & polar molecules
ex. glucose & hormones
Define hydrophobic compounds
don't react w/ water (lipid soluble): carrier molecules
includes nonpolar molecules, fats, & oils
Define colloid
a solution of very large organic molecules
ex. blood plasma
Define suspension
a solution in which particles settle (sediment)
ex. whole blood
Define concentration
amount of solute in a solvent
amount of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution
neutral pH
pure water: 7.0
Acidic pH
pH lower than 7, high concentration of hydrogen ions, low concentration of hydroxyl
Basic/Alkaline pH
pH higher than 7, low hydrogen ion concentration, high hydroxyl concentration
bring pH back towards neutral; remove or replace hydrogen ions
Organic Molecules
contain C, H (usually O)
covalent bonds
contain functional groups that determine chemistry
ex. carbs, lipids, proteins (amino acids), enzymes, nucleic acids
organic compounds, contain C, H, O
simple sugars ex. glucose, fructose, galactose
2 sugars ex. sucrose, maltose
many sugars ex. glycogen, starch, cellulose
organic molecules (contain H, C, O)
mainly contain hydrophobic molecules, store environmental toxins.
ex. fatty acids, eicosanoids, glycerides, steriods, phospholipids, glycolipids
Fatty Acids
long chains of C & H w/ a carboxyl group (COOH) at 1 end
-are relatively nonpolar except the carboxyl group
-organic molecules
Saturated fatty acids
saturated w/ hydrogen (no covalent bonds). usually solid fats
Unsaturated fat
1 or more double bonds. usually liquid fats
Monounsaturated fat
contains 1 double bond
Polyunsaturated fat
contains multiple double bonds
Lipids derived from arachidonic acid: organic molecules. Chemical messengers coordinating cellular activities.
class of eicosanoids, active in immune system
class of eicosanoids, short-chain fatty acids, local hormones
fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule.
1. energy source
2. insulation
3. protection
aka triacyglycerols or neutral fats. 3 fatty acid tails on glycerol
4 rings of C & H w/ an assortment of functional groups. ex. cholesterol
1. structural component of plasma membranes
2. steroid hormones regulate sexual function, tissue metabolism, & mineral balance
3. digestive secretions in bile
diglycerides attached to a phosphate group. generally have hydrophilic heads & hydrophobic tails. are structural lipids, components of plasma membrane
diglycerides attached to a sugar
generally have hydrophilic heads & hydrophobic tails. are structural lipids,components of plasma membrane
most abundant, important organic molecules. contain basic elements (C, H, O,N) basic building blocks: 20 amino acids
break apart proteins
factors: temp, pressure, pH
Hooking amino acids together
requires dehydration synthesis of amino group of one amino acid & carboxyl group of another amino acid.
Forms a peptide bond- resulting molecule is a peptide
Amino acid sequence determines protein function in the body
Protein shape
primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary. (fibrous/globular proteins). protein function is based on shape
are catalysts. proteins that lower activation energy of a chemical reaction & are not used up or changed in a reaction
Properties of enzymes
1. specificity
2. saturation limits
3. regulation by cofactors (allow enzymes to catalyze reaction)
Enzyme + Reactions =
conformatial change
Nucleic Acids
are very large molecules, found in the nucleus, which store & process info at the molecular level
determines inherited characteristics & directs protein synthesis
controls intermediate steps in protein synthesis
strings of this make up DNA & RNA.
Can be used to store energy
3 molecular parts of nucleotides
1. a pentose sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) attached to:
2. phosphate group
3. nitrogenous base (A, C, G, T, U)
Complementary Base Pairs
purines (adenine, guanine) pair w/ pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, uracil)
DNA complementary base pairs
A+T (adenine & thymine)
C+G (cytosine & guanine)
RNA complementary base pairs
U+A (uracil & adenine)
C+G (cytosine & guanine)
adding a phosphate group to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) w/ a high-energy compound to form ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
-Inactive Enzyme + Phosphate (from ATP)=activated enzyme
failure to maintain homeostatic conditions
What may cause disease? (6 factors)
1. pathogens that invade the body
2. inherited genetic conditions that disrupt normal physiological mechanisms
3. the loss of normal regulatory control mechanisms
4. degenerative changes in vital physiological systems
5. trauma, toxins, or other environmental hazards
6. nutritional factors
chemical compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structural formulas
Artificial sweeteners
organic molecules that can stimulate taste buds & provide a sweet taste to foods w/o adding a substantial amount of calories to the diet
Metabolic Anomalies
caused by nonfunctional or missing enzymes
lack the enzyme the converts the amino acid phenylalanine to the AA tyrosine; high levels of phenylalanine damage the developing nervous system
genetic disorder that results in a lack of pigment in the skin; must avoid skin damage from UV radiation (sun)
genetic disorder resulting in a reduced ability to remove cholesterol from the blood stream
caused by the absence of the enzyme the catalyzes the reaction that converts galactose (found in milk) into glucose; high levels of galactose during childhood can cause jaundice, liver damage, cataracts.