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157 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are Girdles
Bones that attach appendages to the trunk of the axial skeleton
What are the 2 types of Girdles
What are the characteristics of the Pectoral Girdle?
Attaches the arms to the trunk
Consists of the Clavicle and Scapula
What are the the Characteristics of the Pelvic Girdle?
Larger b/c It is weight bearing
Consists of 2 hip bones (os coxa) which are a fusion of the illium, ishium and pubis bones
What are the parts of the Clavicle?
Sternal End- joins with manubrium
Acromial End- Joins with Scapula
Conoid Tubercle- inferior surface of acromial end
Costal tuberosity- found at sternal end
What is the scapula?
triangle shaped bone that enables attachment of appendages, muscles, tendons, and ligaments
what is the Glenoid Cavity?
where the scapula articulates with the humerous to create the sholder joint
What is the Acromion Process?
Rounded part where the clavicle will attach
what is the Coracoid Process?
attachment site for the short head of the biceps bracii muscle
What are the Scapular Regions?
Surpraspinous fossa- above spine of scapula
infraspinous fossa- below spine of scapula

both are sites of muscle attachment , serve to stabilize
What does teh upper limb consist of?
carpal bones of wrist
metacarpals and phalanges
What is the Humerus?
Articulates with the scapula at the glendoid cavity
What are the condyle regions of the Humerus
Trochlea- articulates with the ulna
Capitulum-larger, rounded and articulates with the head of the radius
What is the ulna?
larger bone is medial to the radius
found in the antibrachieum
what is the trochlear notch?
where the ulna interlocks with the trochlea of the humerus
what is the styloid process?
these are the bones that stick out at our wrist joint and help to stabilize the wrist
what is the radius?
The bone that joins with the ulna and capitulm
what is the radial tuberosity?
it is an attachment site for the bicep brachii muscle which allows for the bending and flexion of the elbow
What it the antebrachial interosseous membrane?
the membrane which holds together the ulna and the radius
How many bones form the carpal and what are their names?
8 bones
How many metacarpal bones are there?
5, they articulate with the distal carpal bones to support the palm and hand

are identified 1=thumb, v= pinky
How many phalanges are there in each hand and how are they organized?
distal phalanx, medial phalanx, Proximal phalanx
what do the hip bones (os coxa) consits of?
A fusion of 3 bones :
ilium- largest, greatest amount of space for muscle attachment
ischium- fuses with the ilium and pubis, strongest of the bones
pubis - circle the obtruator foramen, fused with the ilium and ischium
What are the features of the os cocxa?
Iliac Crest- atachement site for ligaments
Arucrate line
Greater saiatic notch- where blood vessels and nerves run to the leg
obturator foramen- site for muscles to run through
what does the pelvis consist of?
2 hip bones
sacrum and coccyx
what is the greater (false) pelvis?
subdivision of the pelvis
found above the pelvic brim
what is the lesser (true) pelvis?
found below the brim
what is the pelvic inlet?
opening into the true pelvis
space enclosed by the pelvic brim
what is the pelvic outlet
bordered by two spines (ischial) and runs from tip of coccxy to the inferior surface of the pubis
How can you tell from the pelvis whether the person was a male or female?
if the pubic angle is acute = male
if the pubic angle is obtuse= female
what are the parts of the femur?
longest and heaviest bone in the body
lateral and medial epicondyles
what is the linea aspera?
line that runs along the shaft and serves as attachment to adductor muscles
what is the popliteal surface?
the back of the knee
what is the tibia?
large medial bone of the leg
the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia articulate with those of the femur
what is teh intercondylar eminence?
it separates the medial and lateral condyle of the tibia
what is the anterior crest?
raised part of the bone that you can feel running down the shin
what is the medial malleolus?
makes up the ankle joint along with the malleolus of the fibula and inferior articular surfaces of the tibia
what is the fibula?
slender and parelles the border of the tibia, head articiulates with the tibia
what is the lateral malleolus?
provides stability of the ankle joint by preventing medial sliding
what is the tarsus?
second largest bone in the foot helps to transmit body weight from tibia toward toes
what is the calcaneus?
the heel bone, largest of the tarsal bones
where most of the weight is transfered before it is transfered to the ground

attachment site for the achilles tendon
what is the cuboid?
bone that articualtes with the lateral surface of the calcaneus
how many bones are in the tarsal?
3 cuneiform bones
what is the navicular?
located on the medial side of the ankle and articulates with the surface of the talus
what are the cuneiform bones?
3 bones arranged in a row with articulations between them

named according to postion: medial, intermediate, lateral
How many phalagx bones are there in the foot?
14 on each foot
How many metatarsal bones are there?
what is the definition of a joint?
any point where 2 bones meet
How do you classify Joints?
Based on their range of motion:
what is a synarthrois joint and what are some examples?
immovable joint
- suture
-Gomphosis- teeth
-synchondrosis - 2 bones by cartillage
-synostosis- jointe by DCT
what is a amphiarthrosis joint?
slightly moveable joints
what is a syndesmosis joint
slightly movable joint joined by connective tissue
- radius ulna
what is a symphysis joint?
joints separated by a wedge or pad of fibrous cartilage
what are diarthrosis joints?
freely movable joints
what is a synovial joint?
a diarthrosis joint, that permits a wide range of motion and subdivided by number of directions of movement
what is gliding movement?
linear motion
two opposing surfaces slide past one another
slight movement, in any direction
ex. articulating carpal bones
what are the types of angular motion?
abduction, adduction
flexion, extension
what is flexion ?
decreae the angle between bones such as using the hamstring machine
what is abduction?
movement away from the axis of the body, outer thigh machiine
what is adduction
towards the body of axis, the inner thigh machine
what is circumduction?
Angular Motion
moving your arm in a loop, such as drawling a circle on the board
what is rotation?
Angular motion
it is rotation around a point, axis
what are the 2 types of rotation?
pronation- front to back movement
supination- back to front movement
what are the Special types of movements?
Elevation, Depression
Plantar Flexion, Dorsiflexion
Protraction, Retraction
what is elevation and depression?
E- moving up, closing mouth
D- moving down, opening mouth
what is eversion and inversion?
E-moving foot outward laterally
I-moving food inward laterally
what is plantar flexion and Dorsiflexion
P- Ballet point foot
D-locking ankle (kicking a ball)
What is protraction and retraction
P- moving a body part anteriorly in a horizontal plane
R-reverse movement
What is opposition
being able to bring your thumb to your pinky, opposable thumbs
what is the function of Articular Cartilage?
covers ends of bones in joints to prevent them from fusing together
what is a joint capsule?
a joint capsule surrounds the joint cavity with a layer of dense connective tissue and contains synovial fluid
What are the functions of a synovial membrane?
lines joint cavity
produces synovial fluid,
provides nourishment
Acts as a shock absorber
what are bursae
fludid filled sacs tha provide extra shock aborbance, prevent patella from rubbing against the femur
What is the purpose of acessory ligaments?
support and strengthen and reinforce synovial joints
can be found extracapsular or intracapuslar
What are tendons?
they are made of dense connective tissue and attach one bone to another
What is a ball and socket joint
Triaxial synovial joint
sholder and hip
what is a condyloid joint
synovial joint that consists of a rounded surface that fits into a rounded convex surface

allows for biaxial movement
metacarpals and phalanges
what is the strength vs. Mobility idea reguarding Joints?
you can not have a very strong and movable joint due to limits of range of motion
What is a pivot joint?
monaxial synovial joint that permits rotation around an axis

head on the cervical axis vertebrae
what are limits of range of motion?
shape of the articulating surfaces
Presences of ligaments and collagen fibers
Tension in the tendons
presences of other structures (muscles)
what are intervertebral joints
amphiarthrosis joints that hold the vertebrae together by means of intervertebral discs
what are the strutrues that make up an inetervertebral disc
annulus fibrosis- outside make of fibrous cartilage
Nucleus pulpous- inside, watery shock absrober
What is an ANterior longitudinal ligament?
connects arteriro surfaces of each vertebral body
what are posterior longitudinal ligaments?
parellels anterioir longitudinal ligament
what is the ligamentum flavum
connets one lamina to the next
what is the interspinous ligament
connects spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae
what is the supraspinous ligament
interconnects tips of spinous processes from C7 to sacrum and extends to the base of the skull
what are the vertebral movements?
anterior flexion- bend forward
laterl flexion
Extension- bending backwards
What are some charateristics of the Glenohumoral joint?
permits greatest range of motion out of all the joints,
ball and socket joint
glenoid labrum
what is a glenoid labrum
deep socket at glenoid fossa formed by fiborcartillage
what is the glenohumoral ligaments
help to hold the humerus in the socket, attaches around the glenoid cavity to the the head of the humerus
what is the coracromial ligament
attaches the coracoid to the clavicle
most commonly torn, stabilizes sholder joint
what is the coracohumeral ligament
base of the coracoid to the humerus
strenthens arteiral capsule helps support weight of upper limb
what is the Acromioclaviular ligament?
acromion to clavicle
restricts clavicular movement
what is the coracoclavicular ligament
attaches at the coracoid to the clavicle
limit relative motion btwn clavicle and scapula
what is the transverse humeral ligament
extends between the greater and lesser tubercle holds down brachii muscle
What Muscles and tendons are found in the sholder?
Rotator cuff muscles which support the sholder and limit movement
where are the bursae found in the sholder?
subacromial- btwn acromion & humerus
subcoracoid- btwn coracoid and humerus
subdeltoid- btwn deltoid and humerus
subscapular-btwn large musles
What is teh Humerolulnar joint
the elbow joint , monaxial hinge joint
what are the ligaments of the humeroulnar joint?
radial collateral ligament
Anular ligament
Ulnar collateral ligament
What is the Hip Joint?
triaxial synovial joint ball and socket, but not as movable bc bares weight
what is the articular capsule of the hip joint?
made of dense strong deep tissue which limits mobility
thick fiborcartilage pad for cushioning
what are the ligaments of the hip joint?
transverse acetabular
ligimentum capitis
What is the Knee Joint?
Hinge Joint that permits extension flexion and some rotation
what are the articulations of the knee joint?
medial condyle of the femur and tibia
lateral condyle of femur and tibia
patella and femur
what is the artcular capsle of the knee joint?
no single unified capsule of the knee or a common synovial cavity
what are the medial and lateral menisci
act as cushions and provide lateral stability
where are fat pads found and what are they
in the knee, provide padding around joint to reduce friction between the patella and other tissue
what are the ligaments of the knee joint?
anterior and posterior cruciate
tibia and fibula collateral
popliteal - femur and head of tibia and fibula t reinforce back of the knee
what are the functions of the skeletal muscles?
support of soft tissues
guard entrances and exits
Maintain body temperature
what is the epimysium?
dense layer of CT that surrounds entire skeletal muscle
what is teh perimysium
divide the muscle into compartments containing muscle fibers called fasciles
(kinda like cytoplasm of the muscle)
what is the endomysium
surrounds each skeletal muscle fiber and binds them together
(like the membrane of a cell)

Myosatellite cells are found here
what are myosatellite cells?
repair damaged muscle fibers
Where are nerves and blood vessels found in skeletal muscle?
in the CT of the epimysium perimysium and endomysium

BV-branched through CT in capillary network is found around each muscle fiber
what are the functions of skeletal muscle nerves?
enable voluntary contractions by means of chemical communications between the synaptic terminal of the neruon and skeletal muscle fiber at the neuromuscular junction
What is the Sarcolemma?
specialized muscle membrane
what is scarcoplasm
specialized muscle cytoplasm
what are the differences in muscle fibers from regular cells?
striated, very long
multinucleated (myoblasts fuse)
myofibrils= cylindicular contain actin and myosin
what is the scarcoplasm retiuculum
surround myofibril helps spread messages from sarcolemma to the cell
what are transverse tubules of skeletal muscles?
stimulate and coordinate muscle contractions by spreading electrical singnals
what are myofilaments ?
protien filaments containing actin (thin) and myosin (thick)
what is a scaromere?
repeatiing untis of actin and myosin
unit of contraction within skeletal muscle
what is a M line?
center part of a scaromere, middle filled with thick myosin filaments
what are z lines and where are they found?
thin filaments (actin) found on either side of the M line and within a sacromere
what is the Aband?
area contining thick filaments
which include the M line, and H zone
what is the I band?
btwn A band and Z line containing thick filaments
what is the sliding filament therory?
myosin makes a connection with actin causing myosin to pull the actin towards the center (m line)
this causes a decrease in the I band and h zone but the a band stays the same
this continues until it is pulled to the center as far as possible = contraction
what is a motor nerve?
forms a chemical synapse withthe muscle cell reffered to as a neruomusuclar juntion
What is the Motor End Plate
highly excitable region of muscle fiber responsible for initiation of action potentials across muscle surface- causing the muscle to contract
What is the Synaptic knob ?
Knob= terminal which contains synaptic vesicles filled with neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine
What is the synaptic Cleft
separate the synaptic terminal from the motor end plate and contain enzymes that break down acetylcholine
What is a Muscle twitch?
quick contraction of the muscle followed by relaxion
each twitch is one nerve impulse
what is a summation?
addition of contractions until there is a tetanus reached
what is a tetanus?
smooth sustained contraction
what is a fast oxidative muscle fiber?
Get energy through ATP, produced from cellular respiration
intermediate speed
What are slow oxidative muscle fibers?
High numbers of mitochondria
Red appearance= high amounts of myoglobin
cellular respiration for ATP
use for sustained strength
what are fast glycolytic fibers?
white fibers, few mitochondria
ATP from Glycolysis thus fastest but not sustained long
Where are the different types of muscles found?
most muscle contain a mixture of the fibers and can change depending upon how you use them (physical conditioning)
What is parallel Muscle organization?
most muscles organized in this fashion, run evenly from one end to the other
central part = the belly or body
What is convergent muscle organization?
broad base and narrow towards the tendon (Chinese fan shaped)
more versatile , produce more force
what is pennate muscle organization?
Produce the most amount of force
3 kinds
unipennate- 1 flag
bipennate - leaf like, tendon runs center
multipennate- branching tendon
What are circular muscles?
also called sphinter muscle
gurard entrances and exits
What is the Lever System?
Sytem for how muscle work together
consiting of a fulcrum = joint, the force or effort= contraction of muscle, and resistance = body part that is going to be moved as a result of a contractoin
What are the classes of levers?
First Class- Fulcrum between effort and resistance : neck muscles
Second class- resistance between fulcrum and effort : Calf raises
3rd Class- Effort between fulcrum and resistance : flexing biceps
What is an origin and Insertion?
Origin= bone which muscle attaches
Insertion=what will be moved when contraction takes place
What are prime Movers?
muscles that when they contract are responsible for movement at that joint
what are synergist muscles?
helper muscles of the prime movers
what are antagonists?
muscles which work in the opposing direction as the prime mover
What is the function of the neural system?
detects internal and external changes
sensory info
coordinating voluntary and involuntary muscle
reglates other tissues and systems
what are the subdivisions of the Nervous system?
Central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral (everything else)
What is the Afferent Division?
Division on the PNS
carry Sensory info from the body to the CNS
what is the efferent Division?
Division of the PNS- Motor
Regulates automatic (involuntary) and somatic muscles (voluntary)
what are glial Cells?
support neurons, provide structural framework, produce myelin , carry out phagocytosis
what cells are found in the PNS?
Schwann cells
Satelite cells
what are schwann cells?
responsible for surrounding nerve cell processes with myelin, produce myelin
what are satellite cells ?
support neurons physiologically maintain homeostasis