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137 Cards in this Set

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Name the 3 functions of the respiratory system?
1-gas exchange
2-speech
3-controls body pH
Which 2 structures are part of the upper respiratory system?
1. nose
2. pharynx
Which structures are part of the lower respiratory system?
1. larynx
2. trachea
3. bronchi
4. bronchioles
5. lungs
6. thorax
What structure separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity?
the nasal septum
where are the external nares located?
at the opening to the nose
Where are the internal nares located?
at the passageway from the nose to the throat
what is the function of the nose?
Warms, moistens and filters air that you breath in and smells
What is the anatomical name for the throat?
Pharynx
From where to where does the pharynx extend?
from the base of the skull to the esophagus
What 3 regions is the pharynx divided into?
1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx
Explain where the nasopharynx is located
it's part of the pharynx tube behind the nasal cavity and it extends from the posterior nares to the level of the soft palate
Explain where the oropharynx is located
it's part of the tube behind the oral cavity that extends from the soft palate to the hyoid bone.
Explain where the laryngopharynx is located
it's part of the pharynx tube that extends from the hyoid bone to the esophagus
give the 5 passageways in and out of the pharynx
1. posterior nares
2. fauces--mouth to throat
3. into larynx
4. into esophagus
5. estachian (auditory) tubes
What are estachian tubes?
tiny tubes between the middle ear and nasopharynx whose function is to permit equalization of pressure in front and behind ear drum
Which structure holds the tonsils?
the pharynx
Give 3 functions of the Pharynx
1. common passageway for respiratory and digestive system
2. warm, moisten, and filter air the your breathe.
3. phonation
Define Phonation
Formation of sounds for words
What is the anatomical name for your voice box?
the larynx
Where is the larynx located?
between the roof of the tongue and the trachea or between C3 and C6 vertebrae
which 9 pieces of cartilage hold the larynx together? Which shape do they make?
thyroid cartilage, epiglottis cartilage, cricoid cartilage, 2 arytenoid, 2 cuneiform, 2 corniculate;Triangular shape
What is the largest piece of cartilage that produces the triangular shape in the larynx?
Thyroid cartilage
What produces the "adam's apple"?
thyroid cartilage in males is larger
What is the structure that closes when you swallow so that you don't choke but opens when you breathe?
Epiglottis cartilage
What is the most inferior piece of cartilage that attaches to the trachea in the larynx?
cricoid cartilage
What are the 3 paired cartilages in the larynx?
1. arytenoid
2. cuneiform
3. corniculate
What are the 2 pairs of folds that form the ciliated mucous membrane of the larynx?
1. vestibular or false vocal chords
2. true vocal chords
What are the true vocal chords?
the lower pair of folds in the larynx
what are the false vocal chords?
vestibular folds. upper pair of folds in larynx
Which vocal chords produce the sound waves?
the true vocal chords
What is the space called that is between the vocal folds?
the Rima Glottis
Define the Glottis
the true vocal chords plus the rima glottis
What are the 2 groups of skeletal muscles in the Larynx?
1. intrinsic
2. extrinsic
What is the function of the intrinsic skeletal muscles in the wall of the larynx?
1. control tension and length of the vocal chords
2. open and close the glottis.
What is the function of the skeletal muscle (both intrinsic and extrinsic) in the wall of the larynx?
Both have a role in swallowing and vocalization
What is the function of the extrinsic skeletal muscles in the wall of the larynx?
1. to produce sound waves that we use for speech
2. to warm, moisten, and filter incoming air.
From where does the trachea extend to and from?
from the larynx to the primary bronchi
What structure sits on top of the esophagus and is slightly flattened>
the trachea
What is the anatomical name for the wind pipe?
the trachea
What four layers make up the wall of the trachea?
1. mucous membrane layer
2. sub-mucous membrane layer
3. hyaline cartilage
4. connective tissue
What prevents the trachea from collapsing?
the 20 C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings.
What is the function of the trachea?
to be a simple passageway for air to pass through
What produces an occlusion?
Excess mucous of the trachea.
Define occlusion
something is blocking the trachea
From where to where do the bronchi extend?
from trachea to the T5 and then splits
Which bronchus is larger and more vertical?
the right one
What makes up the wall of the primary bronchi?
hyaline cartilage
What is characteristic about the hyaline cartilage that lines the wall of the bronchi?
it gets smaller as you get nearer the lungs
As the bronchi branch in the lungs, what happens to the lumen?
it gets smaller
Define alveolar ducts
tubes that open into functional unit of the lungs
name the 6 branches of the bronchi, please
1. primary bronchi
2. secondary or lobar bronchi
3. segmental bronchi
4. terminal bronchioles
5. respiratory bronchioles
6. alveolar ducts
What happens to the smooth muscle in the wall of the bronchioles as you go down the "tree"?
the smooth muscle gets larger in size
Where is the apex of the lungs?
above the clavicle
Where is the hilum on the lungs?
on the medial surface where the bronchi enter the lungs
Where is the base of the lung?
the broad surface next to the diaphragm
What is the cardiac notch?
the indentation in the left lung that fits the heart
what are the fissures in the right lung?
Horizontal and oblique
what are the lobes of the right lung?
1. superior
2. middle
3. inferior
What are the fissures of the left lung?
only the oblique fissure
What are the lobes of the left lung?
1. superior
2. inferior
What are all lobes sub-divided into?
bronchopulmonary segments
each unit of the lung is served by what type of bronchiole?
segmental or tertiary
Define Alveolus
The functional unit of the lung
What type of epithelium lines the alveolus? Which type supports the alveolus?
simple squamous epithelium; elastic fibers
Define alveolar sac
2 or more alveoli that share a common opening
Define Alveolar Duct
Tube that opens into alveoli
Which 2 epithelial cells make up the alveolar wall?
1. type I-simple squamous
2. type II-septal cells
What is the function of the simple squamous epithelium that makes up the alveolar wall?
The site of gas exchange between the lungs and blood
What is the function of the septal cells that are part of the alveolar wall?
they secrete alveolar fluid
What is the function of of alveolar fluid?
It keeps the inside surface of the alveoli moist.
Define Surfactant
a compound made of phospholipids in lipid protein and function in reducing surface tension
What are the 3 accessory organs of the respiratory system?
1. oral cavity
2. rib cage
3. diaphragm
What are the 2 zones of the respiratory system?
1. respiratory zone
2. conducting zone
What is the respiratory zone responsible for?
gas exchange (upper respiratory)
What is the conducting zone responsible for?
passageway down to the respiratory zone (lower resp.)
What do fibroblasts do in the wall of the alveoli?
They deposit elastic fibers and reticular fibers that contribute to recoil
What is the entire surface of the alveolar wall covered by?
capillary bed
what are the 4 components of the respiratory membrane?
1. simple squamous epithelium of alveolar wall
2. basement membrane of alveolar wall
3. basement membrane of capillary wall
4. capillary wall-simple squamous epithelium
What are we talking about when we talk of hypoxia in regard to the lungs?
it causes vasoconstriction in the lungs that diverts the blood to where there is more oxygen
Define Atmospheric pressure
air pressure that is exerted around the outside of your body all of the time
WHat is the atmospheric pressure at sea level?
760 mm Hg
What happens to atmospheric pressure as you go above sea level?
it decreases
What happens to atmospheric pressure as you go below sea level?
it increases
Define Intrapulmonary pressure
Air pressure within alveoli
Define Intrapleural pressure
air pressure in pleural cavity or outside of the lungs
Which pressure is known for being very low?
Intrapleural pressure
Why is it important for the intrapleural pressure to be very low?
because you don't want the lungs to collapse from high outside pressure
Define Boyle's Law
A volume of gas varies inversely with pressure
Define Dalton's Law
Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all other gases were not present
Atmospheric pressure equals what?
the sum of the partial pressures/gases
in your body, how does partial pressure diffuse?
from high partial pressure to low partial pressure.
What is the formula for Partial Pressure?
(atmospheric pressure) x (percentage of gas in the atmosphere)
Give the normal percentages of Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen gas in the atmosphere
O2=21%
CO2=.04%
N2=79%
Define Henry's law?
The quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of that gas over the liquid and the solubility coefficient of the gas
What is the most soluble gas in water?
CO2
What is the least soluble gas in water?
nitrogen
What is used to treat the Bends, gangrene, bone infection, post surgery, and CO poisoning?
Hyperbaric chamber
Define Charles' Law
A volume of gas is directly related to its temperature
What are the 4 components of respiratory physiology?
1. Pulmonary ventilation
2. external respiration
3. internal respiration
4. cellular respiration
Define Pulmonary Ventilation
Process by which gases are exchanged between the atmosphere and alveoli
Define External Respiration
Gas exchange between the lungs and blood
Define Internal respiration
gas exchange between blood and tissue cells
Define Cellular Respiration
Glucose catabolism utilizing oxygen as the final electron acceptor
What does this describe: Air moves from nose to lungs and back out again
pulmonary ventilation
What causes pulmonary ventilation?
pressure changes in the lungs that are caused by contraction and relaxation of respiratory muscles
What 2 parts is pulmonary ventilation divided into?
1. inspiration
2. expiration
Inspiration involves _______ of the respiratory muscles.
contraction
Expiration involves_______of the respiratory muscles
relaxation
What causes the cavity of the lungs to get larger?
surface tension
As lungs expand in volume, what happens to the air pressure?
it decreases
What is considered the active process of pulmonary ventilation?
inspiration
How long do you let pressure out of the body?
until the pressure in the body equals the pressure on the outside of the body
What contributes to recoiling during expiration?
surface tension from alveolar fluid and by the elastic fibers in alveoli
Define Residual Volume
Volume left in lungs after most forceful expiration
What are 2 factors that affect pulmonary ventilation?
1. surface tension
2. compliance
Define Surface Tension
attraction between water molecules that contribute to recoiling for expiration
Define Compliance
the amount of energy needed to expand the lungs and the thoracic wall.
Would you want high or low compliance and why?
high because it makes it easier to take a breath
What 2 factors contribute to compliance?
1. surface tension
2. elasticity of the thoracic wall and lung wall
What 4 factors decrease compliance?
1.Any condition that prevents expansion of the intercostals muscles
2.Any condition that reduces the amount of surfactant in the lungs
3.Any condition that reduces elasticity of the lungs.
4.Any condition that causes the lungs to fill with fluid.
Where is airway resistance greater?
In the bronchioles
What nervous system is airway resistance controlled by?
sympathetic nerve fibers
When do the bronchioles increase in diameter during normal respiration?
in inspiration
Where is the greater resistance, in inspiration or expiration?
expiration
Give the amount of carbon dioxide in the air before going into the lungs
.304 mm Hg
Give the amount of oxygen in the air before going into the lungs
160 mm Hg
Give the amount of oxygen in the lungs
100 mm Hg
Give the amount of oxygen in the blood
40 mm Hg
Give the amount of carbon dioxide in the lungs
40 mm Hg
Give the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood after leaving the lungs
45 mm Hg
What are 4 factors that function in getting oxygen of of Hgb?
1. as pO2 goes down, O2 is driven off
2. pCO2 goes up, O2 is driven off
3. Hydrogen ion concentration goes up, O2 driven off
4. Local temperature-heat goes up, oxygen driven off
How much Oxygen that's dissolved in plasma is needed to be transported?
1.5%
What percentage of oxygen is transported by hemoglobin?
98.5%
How much CO2 is transported in plasma?
7%
What percentage of Carbon dioxide is transported by hemoglobin?
23%
what percentage of carbon dioxide is transported by bicarbonate?
70%
Define Chloride ion shift
when chloride ions diffuse into RBCs as bicarbonate diffuses out. chloride takes place of bicarbonate