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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is the primary principle of socialization?


What are the three theories of socialization?

Primary principle (family), structuring principle, age-cohort tendency

The influence of an important external event in shaping the views of the generation pertaining to the theories of socialization?

Age-cohort tendency

The principle that believes that the political beliefs we learn as children Will most likely follow us into adulthood

Primary Principle

The process by which we develop our political values and opinions throughout our lives


Family, religion, gender, generational events, race and ethnicity, class, peers, religion, and media are all examples of?

Agents of socialization

A consistent pattern of opinion on particular issues that stems from a core belief or set of beliefs


Ideology is shaped through?


Ideology shapes our opinions on issues and policies true/false?


The political rivalry of conservatives versus liberals is brought on by a different set of political ______


Those opinions held by ordinary citizens that they are willing to express openly. Hugely affected by socialization and ideology.

Public opinion

In regards to public opinion, how firm your opinion?


In regards to public opinion, the likelihood that public opinion will change, the speed with which the change would occur, and the likelihood that the new opinion would endure; likely to change


In regards to public opinion, and issue of importance to a person, or to the public in general; significance/importance


In regards to public opinion, opinions and ideas that are in line with current policies


A kind of polling where a small randomly selected sample of the population can be used to estimate the distribution of an attitude or opinion in the entire population with statistical confidence

Probability polling

In regards to probability pulling, a statistical calculation of the difference in results between the pole of randomly drawn sample and a pole of the entire population is?

sampling error

A type of pulling in which samples are not random due to the lack of population knowledge or discrepancies and participation levels

Nonprobability polling

Political public opinion researcher. Due to his correct prediction of the outcome of the 1936 selection, scientific opinion polls, which rely on the random selection of participants rather than their own self-selection, gained in Norma's credibility during this era

George Gallup

A in 1916, this conducted "staw" polls using unscientific manners to predict the outcom of elections. It's error was to use and unrepresentative samples to draw conclusions about the wider voting public.

Literary digest. It's error was to use and unrepresentative samples to draw conclusions about the wider voting public.

Regarding survey error, what kind of error involves the calculated statistical imprecision due to interviewing a random sample instead of the entire population. The margin of error provides an estimate of how much the results of the sample may differ due to chance when compared to what would have been found if the entire population was interviewed.


Regarding survey error, what kind of error or bias that occurs when surveys do not survey what they intended to measure. This type of error results from flaws in the instrument, question wording, question order, interviewer error, timing, question response options, etc. This is perhaps the most common and most problematic collection of errors faced by the polling industry.


Regarding survey error, which kind of error results from not being able to interview people who would be eligible to take the survey?


In regarding Survey error, which kind of error is caused by the inability to contact portions of the population?


A special type of pull that both attempts to skew public opinion about a candidate and provides information to campaigns about candidate strengths and weaknesses. Sometimes this is done by presenting survey respondents would have a federal situations and then asking them to gauge the importance of the hypothetical issue in determining their boat. At their best, These health gauge better priorities so that a campaign can better target it's message.

Push polling

What is the solution for survey error in polling?

Waiting, or adjusting for sampling error

An organization of individuals sharing common goals that attempt to influence governmental decisions

Interest group

James Madison and the"Federalist 10" is an example of the very first?

Interest group

What are the three types of interest groups?

Membership groups, non-membership groups, government organizations

To engage in face to face verbal or written persuasion with the officials by members of interest groups


What type of lobbyist:

Permanent employees of a group or organization who present the group's concerns and policy proposals to legislators, bureaucrats and other government officials. These include full-time lobbyists in the permanent employ of a group as well as managers, executives and other employees of the group or organization who perform other tasks in addition to lobbying government.

in-house lobbyist

What type of lobbyist: Temporary employees of a group hired specifically to present a group's concerns and proposals to legislators, bureaucrats, and other government officials during a legislative session or for a contractually arranged period of time.

contract lobbyist

What type of lobbyist:

Any person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest

Citizen lobbyist

Individuals or private interest groups to influence the decisions of government; in its original meaning it referred to efforts to influence the votes of legislators, generally in the lobby outside the legislative chamber are called

Private lobbyists

This lobbying act describes the activity of fundraisers who pool a large number of campaign contributions from political action committees (PACs) and individuals. Bundlers, who are often corporate CEOs, lobbyists, hedge fund managers or independently wealthy people, are able to funnel far more money to campaigns than they could personally give under campaign finance laws.


Which statue was enacted to control lobbyists, enacting rules requiring interest groups to be registered, limit gifts and donations, prohibition on "revolving door", and enacted an "This ad was paid for" legalese?

Lobby Regulation Act

Working to influence the elections of candidates who support the organizations issues is known as?


True or false: Public persuasion and grassroots lobbying involve conducting immediate campaign, Paying for billboards, films,'s and speakers to educate the public and conduct public relation campaigns


Direct action strategy by groups when they seek to secure defeat of the specific piece of legislation. One of these is _________, which involves using the court system to file lawsuits, But it's more time-consuming.


Peaceful protest and civil disobedience including ticketing, marches, demonstration, sit-ins, boycotts, And other economic pressures used by groups to influence change are all examples of what kind of strategy of groups?

Direct action

Groups of like-minded individuals who whose primary interest is to win elections

Political parties

A _________ is meant to give voters a clear choice of candidates by establishing priorities and policy differences

Responsible party model

Political parties are not required by the US or state constitutions. True or false?


Political parties have been a part of American politics since almost the beginning. They formed out of tradition and because our natural divisions in American society. The American two party system creates an adversarial understanding of politics and government true or false?


Name the stratarchy in correct order.

National, State, County, Precinct

Temporary or Permanent party structure?
- Not ongoing, lasts hours or day
- Includes primaries and conventions


Temporary or Permanent party structure?
- Not ongoing, last hours or day
- Primaries and conventions


Temporary or Permanent party structure?

-Includes Precint Chairs, including County Executive Committee and a State Executive Committee.


There are two types of party structures under the two party system. What are they?

Temporary, Permanent

When does the primary elections take place? If needed, runoffs take place when?

The first Tuesday in March on even years; runoffs are the first Tuesday in April

The purpose of this type of election is to select a party's general election nominees, as well as precinct and county chairs.

Primary elections

Each state executive committee contains one man and one woman from each of the 31 Senatorial districts. Who are they elected by?

State convention delegates

Occurs on the day of the primary election, and is open to any person who voted in the primary election. Here people submit and debate resolutions, and adopt resolutions to go to county and district conventions.

Precinct convention

When do county and district convention occur?

The third Saturday after the first Tuesday in March.

Occurs on the 3rd Saturday after the 1st Tuesday in March, where people elect delegates for state and district chair, and adopt resolutions to go to state.

County and District conventions

Occurs in June of even years, where people certify primary winners, set the rules and platforms, adopt platforms, select delegates, And select committee members and 38 electors.

State conventions

And which convention are resolutions adopted to go to county and district convention? At what conventions are resolutions adopted to go to state?

Precinct; County

How many electors are selected at state conventions?


During what convention does the official selection of presidential and vice presidential candidates take place?

National convention

To serve as a release valve, to facilitate realignment and the alignment, just split vote, and to raise awareness of issues are all roles of?

Third parties

What are the three types of 3rd parties?

Issue oriented, ideological, splinter

If we were to look at parties ___________ --the formal statement of its principles and policy Objectives -- we would find it stands on all sorts of issues: war, abortion-rights, environmental protection, minimum wage, Etc.


A shift in party allegiances or electoral support.

A long-term (30 years) change in the nature of parties. Include changes in issues and majority status


The situation in which fewer voters support the two major political parties, instead identifying themselves as independent, or splitting a ticket between candidates from more than one party.


When one chamber of Congress is controlled by the same party that controls the White House, while the other chambers is controlled by the other party is called?

Truncated Government

The situation that exist when Congress is controlled by one party in the presidency by the other is called?

Divided government

How many party systems are there?


Name the 3 leaders of the first party system.

Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison

Who is the presidency in 1828?

Andrew Jackson

Who all supported limited government, hard money policy, proslavery, and Indian removal act?

Andrew Jackson and the Jacksonian Democrats

Who were the Whig party's two Maine congressional proponents?

Daniel Webster and Henry Clay

What political party's key issues were economic development, and often sought military leaders?


Harrison, Tyler, Taylor, and Fillmore were all presidents belonging to what political party?


Political party whose platform advocated widespread governmental reform and sought to limit the power of political bosses. Pres. Roosevelt ran for president as this political party

Progressive party

The first party system was between the _____________ v ___________

Federalist party v democratic-republican party

The second party system is responsible for two new parties, What are they?

Jacksonian Democrats and Whigs

Which system disappears because of

Failing to compromise over slavery, emergency of third parties, the free soil party, the American or know- nothing party, and the two parties either disappear or transform?

Second party system

What political party did Abraham Lincoln side with?


The greatest composed of Southern Democrats, northern city dwellers, immigrants, the poor, Catholics, labor union members, blue-collar workers, African-Americans, and women that'll left in Franklin Roosevelt to the presidency four times

New Deal Coalition

Franklin Roosevelt's broad social welfare program in which the government would bear the responsibility of providing a "safety net" to protect the most disadvantaged members of society

New deal

How do the Democrats and Republicans look after the Civil War?

African-Americans heavily sided with the Republican Party after Pres. Lincoln was elected. Political parties were very strong during this time.

Jeffersonian Republicans would later be known as?


Democratic-Republicans are today known as?


The growing liberalism of the Democratic Party in the 1960s and 1970s attracted newly minted voting groups, republican Pres. Ronald Reagan's popularity attracted do you aligned Southerners, Northerners moving to the South during the oil boom years in the 1970s and early 1980s changes the party faces, and weakening memories of the reconstructions and the Civil War helps Republicans. All of these are causes of?

The latest party system

A historical approach politics, a past legacy of restricted access to the ballots, and other social and economic reasons are all causes for?

Low voter turnout

What do the poll tax payment, literacy test, grandfather clause, annual registration, white primaries, and woman's lack of suffrage have in common?

Past restrictions that discourage people to vote

True or false: in order to vote, he must go through an annual registration.


Socioeconomic factors like educational level, family income, and minority status can all affect voter turnout. True or false?


In an open/closed primary, voters can vote in either primary and usually decide which one they will vote on the day of the primary election


In an open/closed primary, voters must be registered in the party at the primary that they attend. This excludes independents


A form of campaign-finance that help wealthy donors and candidates more, Help incumbents more, and often comes from outside the candidates district. Interest groups heavily use these to contribute to campaigns and influence politics.


PACs must register with the FEC within how many days? Donations over $___ must be named. In order to receive, candidates must register with the _________.

10; 50; Texas ethics commission`

The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit an incumbent, a political party, or another group.


In Texas, in order to vote you must be registered _____ days before the election.


Two-party states experience higher voter turnout. True or false.


Which type of ballot: All members of the party are listed together under the party name, and encourages straight ticket voting and the coattail effect.

Party column ballot

Which type of ballot: Candidates are grouped by the office they are vying for

Office block pallet

American uses which kind of ballot?

Australia Ballot

Which court case lessened the requirements of PACs to make contributions?

Citizens United v FEC

For tax purposes, donations for campaigns are often classified as _____ or _______ in the tax codes

527, 501(C)4

How old do you have to be to be president or vice president? How many years must you be a resident of the United states for?

35; 14

True or false: the vice president can be from the same state as the president


How old must you be to become a senator? How many years must you be a citizen? How old must you be to become a Representative? How many years must you be a citizen be a citizen?

30 years old, 9 years; 25 years old, 7 years

Which type of ballot encourages straight ticket voting and the coattail effect?

Party column

Voter participation is lowest/highest in states of the old south?


And election in which voters in a state can vote for or against a measure proposed by the state legislature


Casting a Ballot in advance by mail in situations where illness, travel, or other circumstances prevent voters from voting in their precinct

Absentee voting

Meeting of party members held to select delegates to the national convention


A type of primary in which both parties ballots are available in The voting booth, and voters select one on which to register their preferences

Open primary

A type of primary in which voting in a party primary is limited to members of that party

Closed primary

Good Tuesday in early March on which the most primary elections are held, many of them in southern states

Super Tuesday

A method of evaluating the candidates in which voters evaluate independent candidates and decide whether to support them based on their past performance

Retrospective voting

A method of evaluating candidates in which voters focus on candidates positions on issues important to them and vote for the candidate who best represents their views

Prospective voting

The proportion of eligible voters who actually voted

Turnout rate

Presidential campaigns began with the primary process, continue through the national party conventions, proceed to the general election campaign and boating, and end with the?

Electoral college vote

Political organizations that use contributions from individuals, corporations, and labor unions to spend unlimited some independent from the campaign, yet influencing the outcomes of elections

Super PACs

The phenomenon by which candidates running for a lower level office such as city council benefit in an election from the popularity of the top-of-ticket nominee

Coattail effect

An electoral system in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins that office, even if that total is not a majority

Winner takes all

A theory that some individuals decide the costs of voting are not worth the effort when compared to the benefits

Rational abstention thesis