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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
increasing interdependence of citizens and nations across the world.
the legitimate use of force to control human behavior; also, the organization or agency authorized in exercise that force
national sovereignty
A political entity's externally recognized right to exercise final authority over its affairs
the rule of law to preserve life and protect property - maintaining order is the oldest purpose of government
the belief that states should leave individuals free to follow their individual pursuits. Different from "liberal"
a political system in which, in theory, ownership of all land and productive facilities is in the hands of the people and all goods are equally shared. the production and distribution of goods are controlled by an authoritarian govt.
public goods
benefits and services, such as parks and sanitation, that benefit all citizens but are not likely to be produced voluntarily by individuals
freedom of..
an absence of constraints on behavior, as in freedom of speech or freedom of religion
freedom from...
immunity, as in freedom from want
police power
the authority of govt to maintain order and safeguard citizen's health, morals, safety, and welfare.
political quality
equality in political decision making: one vote per person with each vote counted equally
social equality
equality in wealth, education and status
equality of opportunity
the idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to succeed in life.
equality of outcome
the concept that society must ensure that people are equal, and govts must design policies to redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality is actually achieved.
the benefits of govt to which every citizen is entitled
political ideology
a consistent set of values and beliefs about the proper purpose and scope of government
a political philosophy that advocates unlimited power for the govt to enable it to control all sectors of society
a form of rule in which the central govt plays a strong role in regulating existing private industry and directing the economy, although it does allow some private ownership
democratic socialism
a socialist form of government that guarantees civil liberties such as freedom of speech and religion. citizens determine the extent of government activity through free elections and competitive political parties
the system of government that favors free enterprise (privately owned business operating without government regulation)
a political ideology that is opposed to all government action except as necessary to protect life and property
those who are opposed to using government to promote either order or equality
an economic doctrine that opposes any form of government intervention in business
those who are willing to use government to promote freedom but not order
a political philosophy that opposes government in any form
those who are willing to use government to promote order but not equality
those who are willing to use government to promote both order and equality
a system of government in which power to govern in concentrated in the hands of one individual
a system of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of few people
system of government in which, in theory, the people rule, either directly or indirectly
procedural democratic theory
a view of democracy as being embodied in a decision making process that involves universal participation, political equality, majority rule and responsiveness
universal participation
the concept that everyone in a democracy should participate in governmental decision making
majority rule
the principle- basic to procedural democratic theory - that the decision og a group must reflect the preference of more than half of those participating; a simple majority
participatory democracy
a system of government where rank-and-file citizens rule themselves rather than electing representatives to govern on their behalf
representative democracy
a system of government where citizens elect public officials to govern on their behalf
a decision-making principle, necessitated by representative government, that implies that elected representatives should do what the majority of people wants
substantive democratic theory
the view that democracy is embodied in the substance of government policies rather than in the policy making procedure
minority rights
benefits of government that cant be denied to any citizens by majority decisions
majoritarian model of democracy
classical theory of democracy in which government by the people is interpreted as government by the majority of the people
interest group
an organized group of individuals that seeks to influence public policy
pluralist model of democracy
an interpretation of democracy in which government by the people is taken to mean government by people operating through competing interest groups
elite theory
the view that a small group of people actually makes most of the important government decisions
a process of transition as a country attempts to move from authoritarian form of government to a democratic one
Declaration of Independence
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, the document that proclaimed the right of the colonies to separate from Great Britain
social contract theory
the belief that the people agree to set up rulers for certain purposes and thus have the right to resist or remove rulers who act against those purposes
a government without a monarch, a government rooted in the consent of the governed, whose power is exercised by elected representatives responsible to the governed
a loose association of independent states that agree to cooperate on specified matters
Articles of Confederation
the compact arguing the 13 original states that established the 1st government of the United States
Virgina Plan
A set of proposals for a new government submitted by the constitutional Convention of 1787; included separation of the government into 3 branches; division of legislature into two houses, and proportional representation in the legislature
legislative branch
lawmaking branch of govt
executive branch
law enforcing branch
judicial branch
law interpreting branch
New Jersey Plan
Submitted by the head of NJ delegation to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, a set of nine resolutions that would have, in effect, preserved the Articles of Confederation by amending rather than replacing them
Great Compromise
submitted by Connecticut delegation to the Constitutional Convention, and thus known as the Connecticut Compromise, a plan calling for a bicameral legislature in which the House of Representatives would be apportioned according to population and the States would be represented equally in the Senate
electoral college
a body of electors chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and vice president
extraordinary majority
a majority greater than the minimum of 50 percent plus one
a form of government in which power resides in the people and is exercised by their elected representatives
the division of power between a central government and regional governments
implied powers
those powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerate powers
judicial review
the power to declare congressional (and presidential) acts invalid because they violate the Constitution
supremacy clause
the clause in Article VI of the Constitution that asserts that national laws take precedence over state and local laws when they conflict
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the Constitution. They prevent the national government from tampering with fundamental rights and civil liberties and emphasizes the limited character of national power.
the quality of being supreme in power or authority
the division of power between a central government and regional governements
dual federalism
a view that holds that the constitution is a compact among sovereign states, so that the powers of the national government and the states are clearly differentiated
states' rights
the idea that all rights not specifically conferred on the national government by the US constitution are reserved to the states.
implied powers
those powers that Congress needs to execute its enumerated powers
cooperative federalism
a view that holds that the Constitution is an agreement among people who are citizens of both state and nation, so there is much overlap between state powers and national powers.
elastic clause
the last clause in Sec 8 of Article 1 of the Constitution, which gives Congress the mans to execute its enumerated powers. this clause is the basis for Congress's implied powers. Necessary and proper clause.
commerce clause
the last clause in Sec 8 of Article 1 of the Constitution, which gives Congress the power to regulate commerce among the states
money provided by one level of government to another to be spent for a given purpose
categorical grants
grants-in-aid targeted for a specific purpose by either formula or projector
political party
an organization that sponsors candidates for political office under the organization's name
designation as an official candidate of a political party
political system
a set of interrelated institutions that links people with government
electoral college
a body of electors chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and vice president
a closed meeting of the members of a political party to decide questions of policy and the selection of candidates for office
national convention
a gathering of delegates of a single political party from across the country to choose candidates for president and vice president and to a adopt a party platform
party platform
the statement of policies of a national political party
critical election
an election that produces a sharp change in the existing pattern of party loyalties among groups of voters
electoral realignment
the change in voting patterns that occurs after a critical eleciton
two party system
a political system in which 3 major political parties compete for control of the government. candidates from 3rd party have little chance of winning office
electoral dealignment
a lessening of the importance of party loyalties in voting decisions
majority representation
the system by which one office, contested by 2 or more candidates, is won by the single candidate who collects the most votes
proportional respresentation
the system by which legislative seats are awarded to a party in proportion to the vote that party wins in an election
party identification
a voter's sense of psychological attachment to a party
national committee
a committee of a political party composed of party chairpersons and party officials from every state
party conference
a meeting to select party leaders and decide committee assignments, held at the beginning of a session of Congress by Republican or Democrats in each chamber
congressional campaign committee
an organization maintained by a political party to raise funds to support its own candidates in congressional elections
party machine
a centralized party organization that dominates local politics by controlling elections
responsible party government
a set of principles formalizing the ideal role of parties in a majoritarian democracy
interest group
an organized group of individuals that seeks to influence public policy
same as interest group
a representation of an interest group
agenda building
the process by which new issues are brought into political limelight
program monitoring
keeping track of government programs usually by interest groups
interest group entrepreneur
an interest group organizer or leader
free-rider program
the situation in which people benefit from the activities of an organization (such as interest groups) but do not contribute to those activities
trade association
an organization that represents firms within a particular industry
political action committee (PAC)
an organization that pools campaign contributions from group members and donates those funds to candidates for political office
direct lobbying
attempts to influence a legislator's vote through personal contact with the legislator
grassroots lobbying
lobbying activities performed by rank-and-file interest group members and would-be members
information campaign
an organized effort to gain public backing by bringing a group's views to public attention
coalition building
the banding together of several interest groups for the purpose of lobbying
membership bias
the tendency of some sectors of society- especially the wealthy, the highly educated; professionals and those in business- to organize more readily by into interest groups
citizen group
lobbying organization built around policy concerns unrelated to members vocational interests
cooperative federalism
a view that holds that the Constitution is an agreement among people who are citizens of both state and nation, so there is much overlap between state powers and national powers.