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87 Cards in this Set

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Neurotransmitter, pervasive throughout the nervous system, that contributes to movement, attention, arousal, and memory. A deficiency of acetylcholine is found in people with Alzheimer''s disease.
Informal term for substance dependence.
agonist substitution
Replacement of a drug on which a person is dependent with one that has a similar chemical makeup, an agonist. Used as a treatment for substance dependence.
By-product of the fermentation of yeasts, sugar, and water; the most commonly used and abused depressant substance.
alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
Enzyme that helps humans metabolize alcohol. Different levels of its subtypes may account for different susceptibilities to disorders such as fetal alcohol syndrome.
alcohol use disorders
Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with alcohol use and abuse.
amphetamine use disorders
Psychological, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with amphetamine use and abuse.
Neurochemical that seems to be a naturally occurring version of the active chemical in marijuana.
See disulfiram.
antagonist drugs
Medications that block or counteract the effects of psychoactive drugs.
Sedative (and addictive) drugs including Amytal, Seconal, and Nembutal that are used as sleep aids.
Antianxiety drugs including Valium, Xanax, Dalmane, and Halcion also used to treat insomnia. Effective against anxiety (and, at high potency, panic disorder), they show some side effects, such as some cognitive and motor impairment, and may result in substance dependence. Relapse rates are extremely high when the drug is discontinued.
breathalyzer test
Measure of alcohol intoxication that uses a breath sample because some consumed alcohol is vaporized in the lungs and exhaled.
caffeine use disorders
Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with the use and abuse of caffeine.
Family of chemicals in marijuana believed to be responsible for its mood- and behavior-altering ability.
chronic stage
Final of E. Morton Jellinek''s four stages identified in the progression of alcoholism, where the individual''s primary daily activities revolve around obtaining and drinking alcohol.
Medical treatment for hypertension that is often used to reduce the negative symptoms of withdrawal from opiates.
Derivative of coca leaves used medically as a local anesthetic and narcotic; often a substance of abuse.
cocaine use disorders
Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with the use and abuse of cocaine.
Opiate; a mild, medical narcotic derived from morphine.
One of the dimensions of the five-factor model of personality and individual differences involving being organized, thorough, and reliable as opposed to careless, negligent, and unreliable.
contingency management
Encouragement of reinforcers to promote and maintain desired behaviors and removal of those reinforcers that maintain undesired behaviors.
controlled drinking
An extremely controversial treatment approach to alcohol dependence, in which severe abusers are taught to drink in moderation.
Cocaine in a highly potent, solid, rocklike form.
crack babies
Infants who were exposed to cocaine prenatally because of their mothers'' use. Their characteristic irritability and high-pitched crying may be caused by abuse or neglect, in addition to the cocaine itself.
Condition in which a person may replace addiction to one drug with addiction to another when the two drugs have similar chemical makeup and act on the same neurotransmitter receptors.
crucial stage
Third of four of E. Morton Jellinek''s stages identified in the progression of alcoholism, involving a loss of control of drinking and occasional binges of heavy drinking.
Psychoactive substances that result in behavioral sedation, including alcohol and the sedative, hypnotic, and anxiolytic drugs.
dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
Natural hallucinogen from the bark of trees that grow in Central and South America.
disease model of dependence
View that drug dependence is caused by a physiological disorder. This implies the user is a blameless victim of an illness.
Chemical used as an aversion treatment for heavy drinking because it causes a buildup in the body of an alcohol by-product, making the person vomit after drinking. Clients must continue taking it for the chemical to remain effective. Also known as Antabuse.
dopaminergic system
Parts of the nervous system activated by the neurotransmitter dopamine; involved in many functions, including the experience of reward.
expectancy effect
People''s response to a substance on the basis of their beliefs about it, even if it contains no active ingredient. This phenomenon demonstrates that cognitive, as well as physiological, factors are involved in drug reaction and dependence.
One of the dimensions of the five-factor model of personality and individual differences, involving being talkative, assertive, and active as opposed to silent, passive, and reserved.
Decomposition process by which yeasts, water, and sugar form alcohol.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Pattern of problems including learning difficulties, behavior deficits, and characteristic physical flaws, resulting from heavy drinking by the victim''s mother when she was pregnant with the victim.
functional genomics
The study of how genes function to create changes in the organism.
GABAbenzodiazepine system
Chemical benzodiazepines (minor tranquilizers) that facilitate the effects of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid in reducing anxiety. Such a system suggests the existence of natural benzodiazepines in the nervous system that have not yet been discovered.
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus inhibits a range of behaviors and emotions, especially generalized anxiety.
glutamate system
Excitatory neurotransmitter system that may be the avenue by which alcohol affects cognitive abilities.
Any psychoactive substance such as LSD or marijuana that can produce delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, and altered sensory perception.
hallucinogen use disorders
Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with the use and abuse of hallucinogenic substances.
impulse-control disorders
Disorders in which a person acts on an irresistible, but potentially harmful, impulse.
inappropriate affect
Emotional displays that are improper for the situation.
intermittent explosive disorder
Episodes during which a person acts on aggressive impulses that result in serious assaults or destruction of property.
Recurrent failure to resist urges to steal things not needed for personal use or their monetary value.
LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide)
Most common hallucinogenic drug; a synthetic version of the grain fungus ergot.
lysergic acid amide
Naturally occurring hallucinogen found in the seeds of the morning glory plant.
marijuana (Cannabis sativa)
Dried part of the hemp plant; a hallucinogen that is the most widely used illegal substance.
Naturally occurring hallucinogen found in the peyote cactus plant.
Opiate agonist used as a treatment for heroin addiction. It initially provides the analgesic and sedative effects of heroin. After extended use, these effects diminish and tolerance develops. An effective treatment for some when combined with counseling.
moral weakness model of chemical dependence
View that substance abusers should be blamed because their behavior results from lack of self-control, character, or moral fiber.
Opiate medication used as an analgesic (pain reliever) and narcotic that is sometimes a substance of abuse.
Toxic and addictive substance found in tobacco leaves.
nicotine gum
Chewing gum that delivers nicotine to smokers without the carcinogens in cigarette smoke. This substitute may help people stop smoking, especially when combined with counseling.
nicotine patch
Patch placed on the skin that delivers nicotine to smokers without the carcinogens in cigarette smoke. Somewhat more successful than nicotine gum because it requires less effort by the wearer and delivers the drug more consistently; should be coupled with counseling to stop smoking and avoid relapse.
nicotine use disorders
Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with the use and abuse of nicotine.
nucleus accumbens
Complex of neurons that is part of the brain''s pleasure pathway responsible for the experience of reward.
Addictive psychoactive substances such as heroin, opium, and morphine that cause temporary euphoria and analgesia (pain reduction).
opioid use disorders
Cognitive, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with the use and abuse of opiates and their synthetic variants.
opioid-releasing neurons
Nerve cells that release endogenous opioids and play a role in the brain''s pleasure pathway controlling the experience of reward.
Family of substances including opiates and endorphins, as well as synthetic variants such as methadone, that have a narcotic effect.
Naturally occurring compound from the poppy plant that is a strong narcotic, having pain-relieving and sleep- and euphoria-inducing effects. Its derivatives include morphine and heroin.
opponent-process theory
Explanation of drug tolerance and dependence suggesting that when a person experiences positive feelings these will be followed shortly by negative feelings, and vice versa. Eventually, the motivation for drug taking shifts from a desire for the euphoric high to a need to relieve the increasingly unpleasant feelings that follow drug use. A vicious cycle develops: The drug that makes a person feel terrible is the one thing that can eliminate the pain.
pathological gambling
Persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior.
phencyclidine (PCP)
Dangerous synthetic hallucinogen, also called angel dust, that may cause agitated or violent behavior, disorientation, convulsions, coma, and even death.
polysubstance use
Use of multiple mind- and behavior-altering substances, such as drugs.
prealcoholic stage
First of E. Morton Jellinek''s four stages identified in the progression of alcoholism, involving occasional drinking with few serious consequences.
prodromal stage
Second of E. Morton Jellinek''s four stages identified in the progression of alcoholism, featuring heavy drinking but with few outward signs of a problem.
Naturally occurring hallucinogen found in certain species of mushrooms.
psychoactive substances
Psychoanalytic assessment and therapy, which emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts, pioneered by Sigmund Freud.
An impulse-control disorder that involves having an irresistible urge to set fires.
relapse prevention
Extending therapeutic progress by teaching the client how to cope with future troubling situations.
Process by which some individuals may abuse substances in attempting to use them to relieve other problems such as anxiety, pain, or sleeplessness.
silver nitrate
Chemical that can be used in gum or lozenges to make subsequent smoking aversive by producing a bad taste in the mouth. Research indicates this treatment approach is not particularly effective.
Psychoactive substances that elevate mood, activity, and alertness, including amphetamines, caffeine, cocaine, and nicotine.
substance abuse
Pattern of psychoactive substance use leading to significant distress or impairment in social and occupational roles and in hazardous situations.
substance dependence
Maladaptive pattern of substance use characterized by the need for increased amounts to achieve the desired effect, negative physical effects when the substance is withdrawn, unsuccessful efforts to control its use, and substantial effort expended to seek it or recover from its effects. Also known as addiction.
substance intoxication
Physiological reactions, such as impaired judgment and motor ability, as well as mood changes, resulting from the ingestion of psychoactive substances.
substance-related disorders
Range of problems associated with the use and abuse of drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and other substances people use to alter the way they think, feel, and behave. These are extremely costly in human and financial terms.
tension reduction
Negative reinforcement motivation account for substance abuse, suggesting it is maintained because it allows people to escape anxiety.
tetrahydrocannabinols (THC)
Most common active chemicals in marijuana responsible for its ability to alter mood and behavior.
Need for increased amounts of a substance to achieve the desired effect, and a diminished effect with continued use of the same amount.
People''s Urge to pull out their own hair from anywhere on the body, including the scalp, eyebrows, and arm.
ventral tegmental area
Midbrain region that includes part of the pleasure pathway responsible for the experience of reward.
Severely negative physiological reaction to removal of a psychoactive substance, which can be alleviated by the same or a similar substance.
withdrawal delirium (delirium tremens/DTs)
Frightening hallucinations and body tremors that result when a heavy drinker withdraws from alcohol.