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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
• Sexual dysfunctions
: problems in the normal sexual response cycle that affect sexual desire, arousal and response
• Gender-identity disorder
an incongruity or conflict between one’s physical sex and one’s psychological feeling of being male or female.
• Paraphilia
sexual urges and fantasies about situations, objects or people that are not part of the usual arousal pattern leading to reciprocal and affectionate sexual activity
• Compulsive sexual behavior
sex addiction
• Sexual response cycle:
o Appetite: person’s desire for sexual activity
o Arousal: Sexual stimulation occurs – heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate increase. Guys get hard, girls get wet
o Orgasm: involuntary muscular contractions throughout the body. Women are capable of multiple orgasms.
o Resolution: relaxation of the body, heart rate, blood pressure and respiration return to normal.
• Sexual dysfunction categories
o Sexual desire disorders
o Sexual arousal disorders
o Orgasmic disorders
o Sexual pain disorders
• Sexual dysfunction
o Sexual desire disorders
o Sexual desire disorders: related to the appetite phase – lack of sexual desire.
• Hypoactive sexual desire disorder: little or no interest in sexual activity
• Sexual aversion disorder: an avoidance and aversion to sexual intercourse
• Sexual dysfunction
o Sexual arousal disorders
o Sexual arousal disorders: problems of pleasure or getting sexually excited
• Male erectile disorder (ED): can’t get/stay hard
• Female sexual arousal disorder: can’t get/stay aroused during sexual activity
• Sexual dysfunction
o Orgasmic disorders
o Orgasmic disorders: problems with orgasm phase
• Female/male orgasmic disorder: delay or inability to achieve orgasm after reaching excitement phase
• Premature ejaculation: ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, during or shortly after penetration
• Sexual dysfunction
o Sexual pain disorders
o Sexual pain disorders
• Dyspareunia: genital pain in a man or woman before, during, after sex
• Vaginismus: involuntary spasm of the outer third of the vaginal wall that prevents sexual intercourse
• Gender identity disorder
(transsexualism) conflict between a person’s anatomical sex and his or her gender identity or self identification as a male or female.
penis inversion
turning penis into vagina
types of Paraphilia’s
o Nonhuman objects
• Fetishism: sexual attraction and fantasies involving nonliving objects such as female undergarments
• Transvestic fetishism: intense sexual arousal by cross-dressing
o Non-consenting others
• Exhibitionism: urges, acts or fantasies involving exposure of genitals to a stranger
• Voyeurism: urges, acts or fantasies of observing an unsuspecting person disrobing or engaging in sexual activity
• Frotteurism: urges, acts or fantasies of touching or rubbing against a non consenting person
• Pedophilia: urges, acts or fantasies involving sexual contact with a child
o Real suffering or humiliation
• Sadism: sexually arousing urges, fantasies or acts associated with inflicting physical or psychological suffering
• Masochism: Sexual urges, fantasies or acts associated with being humiliated or made to suffer.
• Rape trauma syndrome
a two-phase syndrome that rape victims may experience, including emotional reactions as psychological distress, phobic reactions and sexual dysfunction
o Acute phase: disorganization – fear, self-blame, depression
o Long term phase: reorganization – lingering fears and phobic reactions continue, sexual dysfunctions, lack of desired
• Rapist
o Power rapist: feels inadequate
o Anger rapist: angry at women
o Sadistic rapist: gets satisfaction from inflicting pain
• Mood disorder
Disturbances in emotions that cause subjective discomfort, hinders a person’s ability to function or both
types of mood disorder
o Unipolar depression
o Bipolar disorder
• Mania
• Depressive disorders
o Major depressive disorder
o Dysthymic disorder
o Unipolar depression
-SYMPTOMS
a mood disorder in which only depression occurs and that is characterized by intense sadness, feelings of worthlessness and withdrawal from others.
• Affective symptoms: depressed mood, feelings of sadness, excessive mourning, feelings of worthlessness
• Cognitive symptoms: very pessimistic, thoughts of suicide, self denigration, loss of motivation
• Behavioral symptoms: social withdrawal, lowered productivity, low energy
• Physiological symptoms: appetite/weight changes, constipation, sleep disturbance, disruption of normal menstrual cycle, aversion to sexual activity
o Bipolar disorder
o Bipolar disorder: a mood disorder in which depression is accompanied by mania – elevated mood, irritability often resulting in hyperactivity
• Mania: characteristic of bipolar disorder, consisting of elevated mood, irritability, often resulting in hyperactivity
• Depressive disorders:
-kinds
• Depressive disorders: disorders that include major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder with no history of manic episode; also called unipolar depression
o Major depressive disorder: a major depressive episode whose symptoms include a depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure, weight loss or gain, sleep difficulties, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, inability to concentrate, and recurrent thoughts of death
o Dysthymic disorder: depressed mood which is chronic and relatively continual and doe not meet the criteria for major depression- less severe
• Etiology of unipolar depression
o Biological dimension
• Hereditary
• Neurotransmitters
• brain structure activities
• cortisol levels in the body are associated with depression
• Etiology of unipolar depression
o Psychological dimension
• Psychodynamic
• Behavioral
• Cognitive
• Cognitive-learning:
o Psychological dimension
• Psychodynamic: focus on separation and anger
• Behavioral: focus on reduced reinforcement following losses
• Cognitive: low self-esteem as an important factor
• Schemas: a cognitive framework that helps organize and interpret information
o Arbitrary inference: draw conclusion not supported by evidence
o Selected abstraction: picks out evidence supporting their belief
o Overgeneralization: draws a conclusion based on picked out evidence
o Magnification and minimization: exaggerate limitations and minimize accomplishments
• Cognitive-learning:
• Learned helplessness: an acquired belief that one is helpless and unable to affect the outcomes in one’s life
• Etiology of unipolar depression
o Social dimension
• Relationships:
• Interpersonal stressors
• Social supports
• Etiology of unipolar depression
o Sociocultural dimension
• Cultural
• Gender
• Demographic
• Socioeconomic
• Treatment for unipolar depression
o Cognitive-behavioral treatment: seeks to replace negative thoughts with more realistic (or positive) cognitions
o Interpersonal therapy: short-term treatment focused on interpersonal issues
o Biomedical approaches: increasing the amounts of neurotransmitters available at brain synapses or affecting the sensitivity of postsynaptic receptors
• Symptoms of bipolar or manic depressive disorder
-two levels of manic intensity
• Symptoms of bipolar or manic depressive disorder
o Cognitive symptoms: symptoms of mania include grandiosity, flightiness, intrusive thoughts, lack of focus, poor judgment
o Behavioral symptoms: uninhibited, engaging impulsively in sexual activity or abusive discourse
• Two levels of manic intensity
• Hypomania: milder form, people seem to be “high” in mood and overactive in behavior, dominate conversation
• Mania: display more disruptive behaviors including pronounced overactivity, grandiosity and irritability
o Physiological symptoms: decreased need for sleep, high levels of arousal
• Cyclothymic disorder
• Cyclothymic disorder: a chronic continual mood disorder in which I person is never symptom free for more than 2 months
• What causes bipolar disorder?
• What causes bipolar disorder?
o Biological
• Stronger genetic basis
o Psychological
o Social
o Sociocultural
• How do you treat bipolar disorder?
o The most effective treatment is lithium, lowers level of neurotransmitters at synapses
o Psychotherapy is also effective
• Suicide
• Suicide: the intentional, direct and conscious taking of one’s own life
• Suicide ideation
• Suicide ideation: thoughts about suicide
• Psychological autopsy
• Psychological autopsy: examination of information to explain/understand a person’s behavior before his or her death
• Major explanations of suicide
o Biological factors: may be important – low levels of serotonin
o Psychological factors: mental disturbance, depression, hopelessness, excessive alcohol consumption
o Social factors: lack of positive social relationships
o Socio-cultural factors: race, culture, ethnicity, class, gender
• Lethality
• Lethality: the probability that a person will choose to end his or her life
o Schizophrenia
o Schizophrenia: a group of disorders characterized by severely impaired cognitive processes, personality disintegration, affective disturbances and social withdrawal
o Lose contact with reality
o See or hear things not actually present
o Schizophrenia symptoms:
o Delusions
o Auditory hallucinations
o Marked disturbances in thinking, affect or speech
o Deteriorated from previous levels of functioning
o Positive schizophrenia symptoms:
a symptom of schizophrenia that involves unusual thoughts or perceptions such as delusions, hallucinations, thought disorder (shifting and unrelated ideas that product incoherent communication) and bizarre behavior
o Delusions
: a false belief that is firmly and consistently held despite disconfirming evidence or logic.
o Delusional themes with schizophrenia
o Delusions of grandeur: a persons belief that they are famous or powerful
o Delusions of control: belief that other people, animals or objects are trying to take control of them
o Delusions of thought broadcasting: a belief that others can hear the individual’s thoughts
o Delusions of persecution: a person’s belief that others are plotting against or even trying to kill them
o Delusions of reference: A person’s belief that he or she is always the center of attention (i.e. people are whispering behind their back)
o Thought withdrawal: a person’s belief that his or her thoughts are being removed from their mind
o Capgras’s syndrome
belief that the existence of identical “doubles” who coexist or replace people
o Hallucinations
o Hallucinations: A sensory perception (hearing, visual, smelling etc) that is not directly attributable to environmental stimuli
o Loosening of associations
o Loosening of associations: in schizophrenia, continual shifting from topic to topic without any apparent logical or meaningful connection between thoughts
o Disorganized motor disturbances:
o Disorganized motor disturbances: peculiar body movements, strange gestures
o Negative Schizophrenic symptoms
o Negative Schizophrenic symptoms: in schizophrenia, a symptom associated with an inability or decreased ability to initiate actions or speech, express emotions, or feel pleasure; includes avolition (an inability to take action or become goal-oriented), alogia (a lack of meaningful speech) and flat affect (little or no emotion in situations in which strong reactions are expected)
avolition
an inability to take action or become goal-oriented
alogia
a lack of meaningful speech
flat affect
little or no emotion in situations in which strong reactions are expected
o Negative Schizophrenic symptoms
-primary symptoms
-secondary symptoms
: in schizophrenia, a symptom associated with an inability or decreased ability to initiate actions or speech, express emotions, or feel pleasure; includes avolition (an inability to take action or become goal-oriented), alogia (a lack of meaningful speech) and flat affect (little or no emotion in situations in which strong reactions are expected)
o Primary symptoms: symptoms that arise from the disease itself
o Secondary symptoms: symptoms that may develop as a response to mediation, institutionalization or depression
o Cognitive symptoms
in schizophrenia, a symptom that is associated with problems with attention, memory and difficulty developing a plan of action
o Types of schizophrenic disorders (kinds)
o Paranoid schizophrenia
o Disorganized schizophrenia
o Catatonic schizophrenia
o Undifferentiated schizophrenia
o Residual schizophrenia
o Types of schizophrenic disorders
o Paranoid schizophrenia
• Symptoms
• Preoccupations with one or more systemized delusions or auditory hallucinations
• Absence of disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate affect
• High level of anxiety
o Types of schizophrenic disorders
o Disorganized schizophrenia
• Symptoms
• Grossly disorganized speech and behavior
• Flat or grossly inappropriate affect
o Types of schizophrenic disorders
o Catatonic schizophrenia
• Symptoms
• Disturbance of motor activity
• Excessive excitement
• Agitation
• hyperactivity
• Withdrawn behavior patterns
o Types of schizophrenic disorders
o Undifferentiated schizophrenia
• Symptoms
• Shows prominent psychotic symptoms
• Does not meet criteria for other types
o Types of schizophrenic disorders
o Residual schizophrenia
• Absence of prominent psychotic features
• Continuing evidence of two or more symptoms
o Brief psychotic disorder
: psychotic disorder that lasts no longer than one month
o Schizophreniform disorder
: psychotic disorder that lasts more than one month but less than six months
Delusional disorder
o Erotomania
o Jealousy
o Persecution
o Somatic complaints
o Delusional disorder: a disorder characterized by persistent nonbizarre delusions that are not accompanied by other unusual odd behaviors
o Erotomania: the belief that someone is in love with the individual
o Grandiosity: the belief that one has great, unrecognized talent or some special ability
o Jealousy: the conviction that one’s spouse or partner is being unfaithful
o Persecution: the belief in being plotted against
o Somatic complaints: convictions of having body odor, being malformed or being infested by insects or parasites
o Shared psychotic disorder
disorder in which a person who has a close relationship with an individual with delusional or psychotic beliefs comes to share those beliefs
o Schizoaffective disorder:
o Schizoaffective disorder: a disorder characterized by a mood disorder (major depression or bipolar disorder) and the presence of psychotic symptoms “for at least two weeks in the absence of prominent mood symptoms”
o Common with females
o Course of schizophrenia
o Prodromal phase: the onset and buildup of schizophrenic symptoms--- isolation, peculiar behaviors, inappropriate affect, poor communication
o Active phase: full blown symptoms
o Residual phase: symptoms are no longer prominent
o Causes of schizophrenia
o Genetic and environment factors combine to cause the disorder. Heredity is a major factor but not enough to cause it. Little evidence that psychological factors in and of themselves can cause the condition
o Causes of schizophrenia
o Biological
• Endophenotypes
• Brain structure
• Neurotransmitters
• Dopamine hypothesis: the suggestion that schizophrenia may result form excess dopamine activity in synapse.
o Causes of schizophrenia
o Psychological:
• Depression, feeling worthless
o Causes of schizophrenia
o Social
• Expressed emotion: a negative communication pattern that is found among some relatives of individuals with schizophrenia and that is associated with higher relapse rates – number of hostile statements/criticism by family member
o Causes of schizophrenia
o Sociocultural
• Women tend to get later onsets of schizophrenia
• Lower education
• Poorer
o Schizophrenia treatments
o Antipsychotics
• Neuroleptic: antipsychotic drug that can help treat symptoms of schizophrenia but can also produce undesirable side effects such as symptoms that mimic neurological disorders
o Psychotherapy
o Psychosocial therapy – social skills training, changing communication patterns