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44 Cards in this Set

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Define tissue
Collection of structurally similar cells with related function.
Form tight independent cell communities.
Function cooperatively for a purpose.
Four primary tissues
Muscle, nervous, connective, epithelial.
Function of muscle tissue
Movement and heat production
Function of connective tissue
Supports, insulates, cushions, and protects.
Function of nervous tissue
Control and communication.
Function of epithelial tissue
Protection by lining and covering.
Six special characteristics of epithelium
Cellularity, specialized contacts, polarity, avascularity, regeneration, and the basement membrane.
Cellularity
Composed of closely packed cells.
Specialized contacts
Gap junctions and desmosomes keep the cells tight together forming sheets.
Polarity
Apical and basal surface. Apical is facing the outside and sometimes possess villi/microvilli or cilia (trachea). Basal surface is attached to the connective tissue underneath by the basement membrane.
Basement membrane
Basal and reticular lamina are two layers. Basal is colagen and glycoprotein with attachment to lamina which is supported by the connective tissue.
Avascularity
No vessels are present.
Nourishment is from diffusion from connective tissue.
Regeneration
High turnover of cells and constant regeneration by mitosis.
Simple squamous epithelium
Single layer of flat, scale-like cells. Located in the air sacs of lungs, blood, and lymphatic vessels. Function is diffusion and filtration with some protection.
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Single layer of cube shaped cells with round nucleus. Function is secretion and absorption with limited protection. Location is the glands, ducts and tubules.
Simple columnar epithelium
Tall column cells with oval nucleus and can sometimes have cilia, villi and/or goblet cells on apical surface. Function is secretion, absorption, and protection.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Single layer of columnar cells with different heights and oval nucleus at different levels with possibility of cilia and/or goblet cells on apical surface. Function is secretion, absorption, and protection. Location is m/c in upper respiratory tract.
Stratified squamous epithelium
Many layers of cells.
Squamous to columnar cells.
Location is skin, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, rectum, anus, and vagina.
Function is physical protection from abrasion, pathogens, and chemical attacks.
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
2 or 3 layers.
Cube shaped cells.
Locations is some ducts.
Function is protection, secretion and absorption.
Stratified columnar epithelium
2 or 3.
Tall column cells.
Location is maybe in larynx, male urethra, and some glands.
Function is protection and absorption.
Transitional Epithelium
2 or 3 layers.
Squamous or cuboidal.
Location is ureters, bladder and urethra.
Function is distention.
Cilia
Function is to help proper substances out of lungs.
Example is the trachea.
Gland
1 or more cells that produce and secrete a variety of secretions.
Exocrine Glands
Formed as invagination of epithelium and keep their ducts.
Endocrine Glands
Formed as invagination of epithelium and then lose their ducts.
Unicellular Glands
Single cells in epithelium, provide mucin, protect and provide lubrication.
Goblet cells, found in respiratory and digestive tracts.
Multicellular Glands
Derived from epithelium with a secretory unit and fibrous capsule.
Simple Glands
One unbranched duct
Compound Glands
Two or more branched ducts
Tubular exocrine gland
Tube like shape.
Found in intestinal and stomach glands.
Alveolar exocrine glands
Small flask like sacs.
Examples are sebaceous and mammary glands.
Tubuloalveolar exocrine glands
Contain both alveolar and tubular secretory units.
Example is salivary glands.
Holocrine exocrine glands
Accumulate products until rupturing with product and dead cell fragments.
Sebaceous glands - skin
Apocrine exocrince glands
Accumulate product at cell apex and then pinch off.
Controversial if existent but mammary gland is suggested.
Merocrine exocrine glands
Secretion by exocytosis leaving vesicles at original shape.
Pancreas, salivary, and sweat glands.
Main classes of connective tissue
Embryonic, connective, cartilage, vascular, and osseous.
Four major functions of connective tissue
Binding, support, protection, insulation, and transportation of substances.
Three common characteristics of connective tissue
Common origin, degree of vascularity, and extracellular matrix made up of ground substances and fibers
Ground substance of connective tissue
Unstructured material including proteins, H20, etc that coil and intertwine forming different types of substances from fluid to a semi-stiff gel.
Fibers
Collagen: increases tension strength as stretches and locks.
Elastic: allows stretching and recoil snapping tissue back to norm.
Reticular: net branching around blood vessels, soft tissue, organs and linked to basement membrane.
Types of cells in connective tissue
Blasts (immature), cytes (mature), macrophage and mast cells
Blasts
Mitotic secreted in ground substance and fibers.
Connective: fibroblast
Cartilage: chondroblasts
Bone: osteoblasts
Blood: hemocytoblast or hemtaopoietic stem cell.
Macrophage
Large cells with an irregular shape that are fixed or wandering. Function is eating foreign matter and dead tissue cells.
Named according to the structures it is in.
Mast cells
Initiate inflammatory response.
Found deep in "bunches" around blood vessels.
Contains histamines which increase capillary leakiness and heparin which thins the blood.