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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Oregon Treaty of 1846
President Polk and England signed this, understanding the limits of the Oregon Territory.
Founded in 1620 - Pilgrims traveled to Plymouth and signed the Mayflower Compact.
Mayflower Compact
A document signed by passengers of the Mayflower establishing self-government for the first time.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1848 - United States received California, which now means land that stretched from Texas to California to as far as Wyoming.
Samuel F.B. Morse
Invented the Telegraph in 1844.
Seneca Falls Declaration
1848 - Document made by Elizabeth Cady Stanton saying all men AND women are created equal.
Compromise of 1850
California becomes part of the Union as a free state.
New Mexico and Utah become U.S. Territories.
Fugitive Slave Law is made.
Louisiana Purchase
1803 - Mississippi is no longer controlled by foreign power.
Territory Purchased: Arkansas, Iowa, Louisiana, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and also parts of Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, and Wyoming.
John C. Calhoun
- Supported Slavery

- Secretary of War

- Vice President of U.S.; created a doctrine of nullification which said that a state could decide if a law was constitutional.
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - James Madison's speech tells Europe not to purchase any territory from the West in U.S.
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the massive social, economic, and technological change in 18th century and 19th century Great Britain. It commenced with the introduction of steam power (fueled primarily by coal) and powered automated machinery (primarily in textile manufacturing).
Eli Whitney
1793 - Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin to take seeds out of Cotton much quicker, and to do that people needed slaves so the Cotton Gin also encouraged slavery, however Eli Whitney did not know the Cotton Gin would have the kind of effect on slaves.
Also invented Interchangeable Parts.
Erie Canal
1825 - Best transportation as of 1825, built by DeWitt Clinton.
Indian Removal Act
Allowed the President to move tribes west.
Trail of Tears
Native Americans wept that they did not want to leave their homes.

AKA, Long Trail West.
Worcester VS. Georgia
It said the Cherokee Nation had the right to make its own laws.
James Bridger
Discovered the Great Salt Lake
In 1824, Mexico became an independent country.
Santa Fe Trail
Americans went to buy goods and then come back to U.S. to make profit.

People brought big wagons with animals, food, and supplies in them.
John Marshall
Thomas Jefferson's Cousin

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Presidents 1-8
1. George Washington
2. John Adams
3. Thomas Jefferson
4. James Madison
5. James Monroe
6. John Quincy Adams
7. Andrew Jackson
8. Martin Van Buren
Presidents 9-17
9. William Henry Harrison
10. John Tyler
11. James Knox Polk
12. Zachary Taylor
13. Millard Fillmore
14. Franklin Pierce
15. James Buchanan
16. Abraham Lincoln
17. Andrew Johnson
Missouri Compromise
1820 - Maine was carved from Massachusetts and made into a free state.
Balanced the slave states and the free states.
It means to kill without a fair trial.
Robert Carter
In 1791 he freed all of his slaves (500+) because of his religious beliefs.
Founded in 1607, the first permanent English Settlement.
Joseph Smith
In 1830, he founded the Mormon Religion.
Virginia House of Burgesses
1st representative assembly in North
Thomas Hooker
Founder of the state of Connecticut, “Father of American Democracy. Connecticut adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut sometimes called the “First written Constitution.”
William Penn
Established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers. He supported freedom of worship, welcomed immigrants, and did not require residents to serve in a militia.
Anne Hutchinson
Banished from Massachusetts colony; one of the founders of Rhode Island
French and Indian War
 British colonists wanted to take over French land in North America.
 British soldiers fought against French soldiers and Native Americans.
 Native Americans joined against the British b/c they were afraid the British would take over their land.
Treaty of Paris
1763 - Ended the French and Indian War
 Also as a result of the war, the British began taxing the colonists to pay for the war and the proclamation line of 1763 was established to keep colonists from settling west of the Appalachian mountains.
Sugar Act
1764 - Tax on Sugar

American Reaction: Taxation without Representation
Stamp Act
1765 - Tax on all kinds of documents

American Reaction: Protests - Sons of Liberty form
Townshend Acts
1767 - Tax on imported goods

American Reaction: Boycott British
Tea Act
1773 - Taxed Tea

American Reaction: Boston Tea Party
Intolerable Acts
1774 - Closed Boston

American Reaction: Formed the first Continental Congress
Revolutionary War
Declaration of Independence 1776
Document written by Thomas Jeffer-son, claiming independence from Great Britain based on the philosophies of Locke, Montesquieu, and Blackstone
Revolutionary War
Lexington and Concord
 British planned to arrest American leaders
 Paul Revere made famous ride to warn about the British attack
Revolutionary War
 Important victory because it influenced foreign nations to support America in its war against England
 France used its Navy in the Americans effort for victory
Revolutionary War
 French ships prevented British supplies to reach Yorktown
 British surrender because of lack of supplies
 British lost hope of winning war and began negotiating the Treaty of Paris 1783
Revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris
The 13 colonies became independent from England
The boundaries of the new nation were the Mississippi river to the west, Canada to the North, and Spanish Florida to the south.
Leaders of the American Revolution
George Washington
Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, Presi-dent of the Constitutional Convention, and First US President, Helped create a strong central government.
Leaders of the American Revolution
Samuel Adams
Boston Patriot who opposed British taxation. He estab-lished the committee of correspondence. Leader of the Sons of Liberty and insisted a Bill of Rights be added to the Constitution before ratification.
Leaders of the American Revolution
Benjamin Franklin
Author, publisher, inventor and diplomat
Leaders of the American Revolution
Alexander Hamilton
Author of many of the Federalist Papers; First secre-tary of treasury, Leader of Federalist Party
Leaders of the American Revolution
Patrick Henry
Patriot from Virginia, opposed ratification of Constitution because of potential limitations on state’s rights. “Give me Liberty. Or give me death!”
Leaders of the American Revolution
James Madison
“Father of the Constitution” one of Three authors of the “Federalist Papers”, author of the “Bill of Rights”
Leaders of the American Revolution
Thomas Paine
Wrote Common Sense and American Crisis, He urged Americans to support the Patriot cause during the American Revolution.
Leaders of the American Revolution
Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams, known for her stance on women’s rights in letters to her husband.
Leaders of the American Revolution
Wentworth Cheswell
Educated African-American Patriot, made the same midnight ride as Paul Revere warning that the British were coming.
Leaders of the American Revolution
Mercy Otis Warren
Patriot writer that supported independence and convinced others to join the cause. First woman historian of the American Revolution, published plays, books and poetry.
Leaders of the American Revolution
James Armistead
African-American spy during the American Revolution. Spied on Lord Cornwallis’ camp.
Leaders of the American Revolution
Bernardo de Galvez
Spaniard who held off British in New Orleans, but allowed Americans use of the port.
Leaders of the American Revolution
Crispus Attucks
American Hero and Martyr of the Boston Massacre
Leaders of the American Revolution
Haym Salomon
Polish Jew who spied for Americans and was held as a translator for the Germans by the British.
Leaders of the American Revolution
Marquis de Lafayette
French Noble who helped Americans during the Revolutionary War
Leaders of the American Revolution
John Paul Jones
Founder of the U.S. Navy. Led raids on British ships and famous for yelling “I have not yet begun to fight”
Leaders of the American Revolution
King George III
King of England during the American Revolution
Magna Carta
Limited the power of the King; guaranteed the right of trial by jury.
English Bill of Rights
called for frequent elections; guaranteed right to bear arms, forbade cruel and unusual punishment; restated trial by jury.
Articles of Confederation
Created just before the Battle of Yorktown, this was the first attempt at a national government by the American Colonies; its weaknesses was the lack of a strong central government.
Constitutional Convention
1787 - Delegates met in Philadelphia Pennsylvania to revise the Articles of Confederation; instead they wrote an entirely new constitution and formed a new government.
John Adams

Alexander Hamilton
Thomas Jefferson

James Madison
Bill of Rights
The first ten ammendments
Constitution Ratified
1787 - Becomes blueprint for American Government
George Washington
1st President encouraged no political parties and isolationism
Farewell address encouraged isolationism and no forming of political parties
John Adams
XYZ Affair
Alien and Sedition Acts
Thomas Jefferson
Marbury v. Madison (Judicial Review)
Louisiana Purchase (1803) — purchased from France for $15 million, doubled the size of the U.S.
Embargo Act of 1807 — restricted trade with any country
James Madison
War of 1812 — United States earned worldwide respect and helped spark the Industrial Revolution
Henry Clay’s American System
Mexican War (James K. Polk –President)
America and Mexico argued over the border between the Texas and Mexico.
America invaded Mexico and Mexico surrendered (“Stonewall” Jackson recognized as a hero of the war)
Mexico recognizes Texas as a part of the U.S. and settles border dis-pute– Rio Grande the border
Mexico gave up the Mexican Cession which helped complete Manifest Destiny.
Jacksonian Democracy
The idea that as many people as possible should be allowed to vote
Gadsden Purchase
1853 - Land purchased from Mexico in used to com-plete the transcontinental railroad.
Florida Cession
1819 - Given to the US by Spain
Abolition Movement
The social movement to end slavery. (Leaders: Fredrick Douglas, Sojourner Truth, William L. Garrison)
Public Education
Between 1830-1850, many northern states opened free public schools. (Leaders: Horace Mann)
Labor Reform Movement
Social movement where workers began protesting and strikes to get better wages and working hours.
Women’s Rights
This movement sought the equal treatment of wom-en, including the right to vote. (Leaders: Stanton, Anthony)
Temperance Movement
Social movement to stop drinking alcohol.
The Liberator
an abolitionist newspaper– William Lloyd Garrison
Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth
both born slaves but had es-caped slavery and became leading abolitionist
Harriett Beecher Stowe
wrote “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” which portrayed slavery in the South
Harriet Tubman
Former slave and conductor of the Underground Rail-road
Kansas-Nebraska Act
 Nebraska Territory was divide into two territories.
 Slavery in each territory was to be decided by popular sovereignty (vote by the people).
 Anti-slavery and Pro-slavery forces rushed into the territories in order to vote.
 A key figure was John Brown who was an extreme abolitionist that murdered slavery supporters.
Sojourner Truth
Former slave who fought for women’s rights and abolition of slavery
Susan B. Anthony
Leader in women’s suffrage (right to vote) movement for 50 years to the effort to attain equal rights for women.
Henry David Thoreau
American essayist, poet, practical philosopher, and transcendentalist. Wrote “Civil Disobedience” (passive resistance) and supported abolitionism.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Author of declaration of the rights of women, seeking equal rights for women. Her and Lucretia Mott held the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, NY.
Horace Mann
Father of Public Education; believed all children had the right to free education.
Civil War (1861-1865)
(1861-1865) Fighting between the North and South over the issue of slavery. North wins and slaves are granted Freedom, Citizenship, and the right to vote.
People of the Civil War
Abraham Lincoln
President of The United States during the Civil War. (Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address)
People of the Civil War
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America. Inaugural address proclaimed States’ Rights.
People of the Civil War
Ulysses S. Grant
Commanding Union General– won major victories for the Union (Shiloh and Vicksburg)- defeated Lee’s troops in Virginia and accepted Lee’s surrender at the Appomattox court hose in 1865
People of the Civil War
Robert E. Lee
Confederate General– commanded the Northern Army of Virginia-respected by Northerners and loved by white southerners– won early victories and invaded the north twice and lost both times (at Antie-tam and Gettysburg)- surrendered at Appomattox
withdrawal of Southern States from the Union
Battles of the Civil War
Fort Sumter
 first shots of the Civil war
 before supplies could arrive Confederate troops attack the fort and the Civil war begins
Battles of the Civil War
Battle of Antietam
single bloodiest battle of the Civil War
Battles of the Civil War
Siege of Vicksburg
 Important Union victory
 Confederates lost control of the Mississippi River
 Vicksburg, Mississippi was the last Confederate stronghold along the Mississippi River
Battles of the Civil War
Battle of Gettysburg
 Important Union victory
 the only time the Confederate Army tried to win a battle in Northern Territory
 Pickett’s Charge was the turning point in the battle
 Pickett led Confederate soldiers into the middle of Union forces and it was disastrous
 Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address here in honor of the dead Union soldiers stating the Union
Battles of the Civil War
Appomattox Courthouse
 Lee Surrenders; War is over
 Last battle of the Civil War
 Lincoln Assassinated
Emancipation Proclamation
freed all of the slaves in the Southern States
Issued by President Lincoln on January 1, 1863– Lincoln did not, however, have the power to free the slaves in the Southern States so in reality it freed very few slaves
13th Amendment
Freed Slaves in all states
14th Amendment
Made all former slaves American Citizens
15th Amendment
Allowed all former slaves the right to vote
Supreme Court Cases
John Marshall
One of the most influential Supreme Court Justices; he helped establish the idea of Judicial Review which made the Su-preme Court the powerful institution it is today.
Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v. Madison
1803 said that the Supreme Court had right to review all laws made by Congress; established the idea of Judicial Review.
Supreme Court Cases
Worcester v. Georgia
Cherokee Nation sued Georgia to keep their lands and won, but were removed by Jackson anyway
Supreme Court Cases
McCulloch v. Maryland
said that a state could not tax a national bank; increased the power of the national government.
Supreme Court Cases
Gibbons v. Ogden
said that federal government had the power to regulate trade between states.
Supreme Court Cases
Dred Scott v. Sanford
said that African-Americans were not citizens of the U.S. and said that Missouri compromise was unconstitutional; increased sectionalism.
Henry Clay
Politician known as “The Great Compromiser” Created the Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and the compromise that ended the nullifica-tion crisis.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Writer and poet; popularized the idea of transcendentalism
John Peter Zenger
Journalist; his trial helped establish idea of freedom of the press
Daniel Webster
Representative and senator in the Congress. Known for his debates against Haynes and Calhoun on the topics of states’ rights and nullification
John Deere
Inventor of the Steel Plow
Compromises on Slavery
Northwest Ordinance
established government for the Northwest Territory and described how a territory becomes a state.
Compromises on Slavery
Morrill Act
land grant that established agricultural-universities. (Texas A&M)
Compromises on Slavery
Dawes Act
Indian policy that broke up reservations into individual land plots.
Compromises on Slavery
Homestead Act
law that a person could claim 160 acres of land in the western territories. (Sooners)
Compromises on Slavery
Fugitive Slave Act
act that helped slave owners recover their runaway slaves from the North. (Part of Compromise of 1850)
Compromises on Slavery
Nullification Compromise
Henry Clay’s compromise to end the nullification crisis when the tariff would be lowered over a 10-year period
Compromises on Slavery
Kansas Nebraska Act
All were examples of the government compromises that actually spread slavery further in the country
Federalist Party
Believe in strong national government; higher tariffs; govern-ment support of industry. (Alexander Hamilton, John Adams)
Democratic Republicans
Strong state governments; lower taxes; support of agriculture and craftsmen. (Thomas Jefferson, James Madison)
Democratic Party
Modern Democratic Party began with the election of 1828 Andrew Jackson became the first Democrat when the Democratic-Republicans split.
Whig Party
Group opposed to Jackson’s policies. Supported States rights, and Henry Clay’s American System. Leaders were Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.
Republican Party
Modern republican Party formed before the Civil War as an Anti-slavery party. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican President; Republi-cans temporarily dominated US politics after the Civil War.
When goods are prevented from going into or out of an area
A refusal to buy certain goods
Economic system in which England controlled trade of the colonies
the right to vote
Free enterprise System
individual people and not the government control the economy; people decide what to make, sell and buy. (Alexander Hamilton)
American System
Henry Clay’s plan for economic growth; protective tariffs, transportation, roads and canals, 2nd national bank.
Manifest Destiny
this was the name given to the idea that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean.
idea that a state government could nullify or ignore a federal law that they feel unfairly hurts their state( or unconstitutional); S. Carolina, led by John C. Calhoun nearly attempted to secede from US after nullifying protective tariffs.
Protective Tariffs
taxes on imported goods that are designed to help United States companies compete in the sale of goods.
a philosophy emphasizing the spiritual importance in life over the material importance.
Minimum Government Intrusion (Laissez Faire)
idea that citizens have the right to privacy and independence from government control.
Property Rights
the right to own property.
Communication Systems
process of keeping the colonies connected to know what was going on in the others.
Transcontinental Railroad
Railroad line that linked the well-developed railway network of the East Coast with rapidly growing California.