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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mixtures of different minerals.
Rock Groups
1. Igneous
2. Sedimentary
3. Metamorphic
Igneous Rocks
The first types of rocks to exist on the earth. Formed from the cooling and hardening of either magma or lava.
Intrusive Igneous Rocks
These rocks form underground from cooled/hardened magma.
Extrusive Igneous Rocks
These rocks form on the earth's surface from cooled/hardened lava.
These openings are formed in rocks from escaping gases.
What causes a rock to have extremely shiny, glassy surfaces?
Extreme rapid cooling.
Where do most sedimentary rocks form?
Under water
Clastic Rocks
Rocks formed from tiny particles of rock, mineral, or mud.
Chemical Rocks
Rocks formed when large bodies of water evaporate.
Organic Rocks
Rocks formed from the remains of living things.
What causes Acid Rain?
Pollutants released from the burning of coal.
What are 2 factors needed to change existing rocks into metamorphic rocks?
Heat and Pressure
Foliated Rock
Rocks with layers
Non-Foliated Rock
Rocks without layers
What Rock is the most important to us now for ENERGY?
(We need it to make electricity.)
Why is anthracite coal preferred over bituminous coal as an energy source?
1. It burns at a higher temperature.
2. It releases fewer pollutants.
The Rock Cycle
1. Rocks on earth undergo constant change, occurs slowly.
2. It shows that any type of rock can be changed into any other type of rock.
When various agents such as rain, changing temperatures, animal action, etc., all combine to break rock apart into smaller and smaller pieces.
Loose rock material in which plants can grow. Vital to life on earth.
What do plants provide?
1. Food
2. Oxygen
The rocks found in soil from smallest to largest.
1. clay
2. silt
3. sand
4. gravel
The 2 major ingredients of soil.
1. rock (most common)
2. humus
Any decaying organic material such as rotting plant or animal material. Contains
valuable nutrients that new plants need in order to grow.
Soil that consists of fairly equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay particles mixed together with a generous supply of humus.
Soil Horizons
1. Top=
Horizon A (topsoil)
2. Middle=
Horizon B (subsoil)
3. Bottom=
Horizon C
Called "mudstone" as it forms from layers of mud packed & hardened together.
Metamorphic Rocks
Rocks that have been changed into a new form by heat and pressure.
Where does the Rock Cycle occur?
Everywhere, but especially at the plate boundaries.
What is Bedrock?
The layer of solid rock that is located under Horizon C.