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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

When does sense of self appear?

18 months

Describe Rouge test and what it does.

Child placed in front of mirror, with red dot painted on their nose. If reach towards mirror, doesn't tell much, but if reach for own nose --> recognize the person in the mirror is themselves.= sense of self

- great apes

What is linked to sense of self?


-helps memory and cognitive function

- describing past and remembering yourself --> can't talk about yourself if you can't talk.

Things that affect sense of self?

- cognitive development = more complex thoughts about oneself

-social/cultural inputs = affects how people feel towards themselves

Theory of Mind

- knowing what other people think

- social interactions

false-belief tasks

- 3 yr olds fail --> if i know something everyone else must know it too. (smarties box= displacement test) --> others have diff. perspective than them

-3 yr olds cant believe that people can believe in facts that aren't true

What did Leslie Suggest?

That the imagination playtime kids all have actually teaches children the difference between reality and fantasy --> ones thoughts can differ from anothers

Advanced executive functioning


-related to theory of mind being there --> discussing it with parents

-and social experiences

Children w Autism

- no pretend play

- don't know that thoughts differ from reality

-dont know diff people have diff views on reality

- poor speech --> especially w emotional and social contexts

What causes autism


- prenatal brain damage

What are autistic kids good at?

- non-social and non-emotional tasks. ex. math

- have strong sense of theory of mind --> this is biological to them

Do animals understand theory of mind?

- somewhat

-hide food = shows they know others intentions. is someone watching them? hide accordingly

moral realism



-first stage

-follow rules

-self-centered approach to justice

- 5-10yrs old

morality of co-operation



- 2nd step

- recognizes rules, social/ universal moralities

- places greater weight on feelings/ needs of others


- inspired by piaget

- 7 stages

- developed stages of moral reasoning

- how people reason when faced with moral problems

- just because someone reaches a stage doesn't mean they follow the morals, it just means they understand the reasoning

Kohlberg stage 1

obedience and punishment orientation

- avoiding punishment

Kohlberg stage 2

morality and naive instrumental hedonism

- costs vs benefits

Kohlberg stage 3

morality of maintaining good relations

-being nice to others so they'll like you

Kohlberg stage 4

morality of maintaining social order

- need for rules

- middle- ages children --> adolescence

Kohlberg stage 5

morality of social contracts

-obeying rules for sake of public

Kohlberg stage 6

morality of universal ethical principles

-principles that go above social rules/laws --> guide personal actions

Kohlberg stage 7

morality of cosmic orientation

-big philosophical question

-moral absolutes or is moral relative?

- few peoples get to this stage

DO infants have any morals?


-fairness, reciprocity, punishment etc

- humans have attach,net behavioural system that makes them want to look out for others to care for them and to care for others.

What shapes children's moral development?

- peers


-set examples

what do children of 18 months demonstrate?

-empathy and compassion

- interest in helping others

- drive towards prosocial behaviour

- maybe just to make allies???

What type of behaviour to children who are securely attached show?

- helping and generous behaviour

How do children learn whats right and wrong?

- restraint, compliance, negotiation

-social referencing --> cues from caregivers to whats appropriate

- compliance--> noncompliance = often requires negotiation, or making child feel guilty --> make them act more professional


one animal doesn't directly benefit from interaction, they suffer.

- offset suffering by either kin selection or reciprocal altruism

-baboon giving leopard a warning call

kin selection

by helping a related animal, they're helping copies of their own genes

- sacrifice life for 2 parents, 4 uncles/aunts etc

inclusive fitness

helping copies of your genes that live in someone related to you

reciporical altriusm

- helping non-related individuals

- remember who reciprocated help and who didnt

- only help those who helped you

- ex: vampire bats


- evolutionary

- helps an individual at the expense of others

-bullying = inc in sex partners, resources, dominance.

- dominance hierarchies --> ranking people in social structure. makes sure weak don't attack the strong, and strong don't feel the need to attack weak.