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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What do we call proteins that bring reactants together and thereby speed chemical reactions in cells?
What is hemoglobin?
oxygen carrying protein
What are antibodies?
protective proteins
What do antibodies do?
fight bad things
What are hormones?
regulatory proteins
What do hormones do?
send messages and alter cellular metabolism
What are contractile proteins?
motion proteins
What do contractile proteins do?
move cell parts and contract muscles
The structures and functions of cells differ according to the type of _____ they contain.
Proteins are polymers and the monomers are called _____ _____.
amino acids
How many amino acids are there?
Which part of an amino acids' structure differentiates them from one another?
attached side chain
What do we call two or more amino acids covalently bonded together?
What type of reaction joins two amino acids together?
dehydration reaction
What is a chain of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds called?
What type of covalent bond is used to join two amino acids?
peptide bond
Polypeptides containing more than ____ amino acids are generally referred to as proteins.
What is the function of a protein determined by?
three-dimensional shape
List the four levels of structure proteins demonstrate.
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
A protein's sequence of amino acids is called its _____ structure.
The _____ structure of a protein occurs when portions of the amino acid chain take on a certain orientation in space.
The secondary structure of a protein can exhibit two forms. What are they?
alpha helix (spiral) or pleated sheet
Which bonds stabilize parallel and non-parallel beta-pleated sheets?
hydrogen bonds
The _____ structure of a protein is its overall 3-D shape that results from the folding and twisting of its secondary structure.
What determines a protein's shape at the tertiary level?
secondary structure and R group interactions
What is a protein's tertiary structure responsible for?
What determines a protein's function?
What types of external conditions can have an effect on the tertiary structure of a protein?
pH and temperature
When external conditions, like pH or temperature, changes a proteins structure it loses its function. What is this called?
A protein has a _____ structure when it contains more than one polypeptide chain.
Give two common protein examples that have a quaternary structure.
hemoglobin and insulin
List the two overall shapes proteins may be classified as.
fibrous or globular
Describe the fibrous shape of a protein.
Describe the globular shape of a protein.
rounded or irregular 3-D shape
The presence of which of the following element(s) differentiates a protein from a carbohydrate molecule?

carbon | hydrogen | nitrogen | oxygen | nitrogen and oxygen