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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is NOT true concerning hormones?
Most hormones are NOT released steadily throughout the day.
What initiates and maintains the production of milk by the mammary glands?
Which of the following has both endocrine AND exocrine functions?
a. adrenal medulla
b. anterior pituitary
c. pancreas
d. thyroid
e. parathyroid
c. pancreas
What is the order of the feedback loop concerning thyroid gland secretion?
1.Low blood levels of thyroid hormones
2. TRH released from hypothalamus
3. TSH relseased from anterior pituitary
4. increased activity of thyroid follicular cells
5. normal blood levels of thyroid hormones
A female who is sluggish, gaining weight, and has a low body temperature may be having problems with her?
thyroid gland
Either a deficiency of insulin production by the pancreas, or defects in insulin receptors on target cells, result in the disease ______.
diabetes mellitus
The most abundant anterior pituitary hormone is?
human growth hormone (hGH)
The posterior pituitary gland stores and secretes ____
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
The release of cortisol is stimulated by ______
Adrenal hormones useful in treating chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatism are ______
Which region of the adrenal cortex produces mineralocorticoids?
outer zone
The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in the blood is regulated by _______
parathyroid hormone
Which pair of hormones have opposite effects?
a. parathyroid hormone, thyroid hormones
b. parathyroid hormone, calcitonin
c. oxytocin, glucocoricoids
d. aldosterone, oxytocin
e. thyroid hormones, thymosin
b. parathyroid hormone, calcitonin
Which of the following hormones is NOT secreted by gonads?
a. follicle-stimulating hormone
b. inhibin
c. progesterone
d. relaxin
e. prolactin
a. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
produce thyroid hormones
follicular cells
secrete insulin
beta cells
release hormones into capillaries of the posterior pituitary
neurosecretory cells
store oxytocin
posterior pituitary
secrete glucagon
alpha cells
produce calcitonin
parafollicular cells
secrete steroid hormones
adrenal cortex
If you drank a liter of water very quickly, the result would be:
decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone
diabetes insipidus
hyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
diabetes mellitus
hyposecretion of insulin
hyposecretion of thyroid hormone
hyposecretion of parathyroid hormone
seasonal affective disorder
hypersecretion of melatonin
initiated by hypothalmic releasing hormones
(F = fight/flight; R = reaction; E = exhaustion)
initiated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
(F = fight/flight; R = reaction; E = exhaustion)
immediately prepares body for action
(F = fight/flight; R = reaction; E = exhaustion)
increases cortisol release
(F = fight/flight; R = reaction; E = exhaustion)
short-lived response
(F = fight/flight; R = reaction; E = exhaustion)
body resources become depleted
(F = fight/flight; R = reaction; E = exhaustion)
increased release of many hormones that ensure a continued ATP supply
(F = fight/flight; R = reaction; E = exhaustion)
failure of pancreatic beta cells; wasting of muscles
(F = fight/flight; R = reaction; E = exhaustion)
nonessential body functions inhibited
(F = fight/flight; R = reaction; E = exhaustion)
Which of the following functions as a second messenger?
A. Adenylate cyclase
C. cyclic AMP
D. protein kinase
C. Cyclic AMP
A hormone released by the kidneys that stimulates the absorption of Ca2+ ions from the digestive tract is?
What stimulates the release of PTH from the parathyroid gland?
Low levels of calcium in the blood
The _____ cells of the islets of Langerhands secrete insulin
Target cells for hypothalamic releasing hormones are located in the ______
Anterior pituitary
What has both endocrine and exocrine functions?
Which of the following produce antagonistic results?
A. ADH and vasopressin
B. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
C. FSH and LH
D. oxytocin and prolactin
B. Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
Tropic hormones are secreted by the
Anterior pituitary
A sign of pituitary dwarfism is:
premature closing of the epiphyseal plates
The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in the blood is regulated by?
parathyroid hormone
Which of the following are associated with diabetes mellitus?
Glycosuria, polyuria, ketosis, and hyperglycemia
Which of the following hormones is a protein molecule?
A. estrogen
B. insulin
C. aldosterone
D. testosterone
B. Insulin
Artrial naturiuretic peptide (ANP) is secreted by what?
The heart
Blood passes in a direct route from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland through the _____
hypophyseal portal veins
Which endocrine gland is NOT regulated by tropic hormones of the anterior pituitary?
parathyroid gland
The posterior pituitary gland stores and secretes _____
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
Drinking a liter of water very quickly would lead to
Decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone
Abnormally low secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland results in the disease ______
diabetes mellitus
Adrenal hormones useful in treating chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatism are ______
Type II diabetes most often occurs in humans who are overweight and ____
over 35
Either a deficiency of insulin production by the pancreas, or defects in insulin receptors on target cells, results in the disease ______
diabetes mellitus
The pineal gland is located in the _____
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is associated with the changes in secretion of a hormone from the ______
pineal gland
Aspirin exerts its effect in reducing pain and inflammation by blocking the synthesis of ______
Which of the following is/are made from cholesterol?
A. insulin
B. nitric oxide
C. steroid hormones
D. thyroid hormones
C. steroid hormones
What stimulates the testes to secrete testosterone?
Luteinizing hormone
What initiates and maintains the production of milk by the mammary glands?
What stimulates an increase in basal metabolic rate?
thyroid-stimulating hormone
What stimulates increased absorption of Na+ and H20 by the kidneys?
Which of the following hormones is NOT secreted by gonads?
A. follicle-stimulating hormone
B. inhibin
C. progesterone
D. relaxin
A. follicle-stimulating hormone
Which answer lists hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and pass in blood stream to the anterior pituitary?
A. Prolactin, MSH, and LH
B. ADH and oxytocin
C. CRH, TRH, and GnRH
C. CRH, TRH, and GnRH
_______ controls the production and secretion of glucocorticoids
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and indirectly, coricotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Hormones influence their target cells by chemically binding to specific ________
Most systems that regulate secretion of hormones work by employing _____ mechanisms
negative feedback
During delivery, the hormone ______ enhances contraction of smooth muscle cells in the wall of the uterus
The _____ is a sequence of bodily changes that can progress through three stages: fight-or-flight response, resistance reaction, and exhaustion
stress response
PTH decreases blood HPO4 2- level, and increases blood Ca2+ level; True or False?
Calcitonin is produced by parathyroid glands. T/F
Sympathetic nerve impulses and epinephrine are more associated with the RESISTANCE stage of a stress response than the fight-or-flight stage. True/False
If a hormone is prevented from interacting with its receptors, the hormone cannot perform its normal functions.True/False
Endocrine glands secrete their products into ducts. Exocrine glands, by contrast, secrete their products into interstitial fluid. True/False
Red blood cells release prostaglandins and leukotrienes in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli. True/False.
The THYMUS GLAND may enlarge to two- to three-times its normal size, a condition called goiter. True/False
Low blood glucose level stimulates the secretion of glucagon. True/False.
Calcitonin promotes decreased blood Ca2+ level, whereas parathyroid hormones increases blood Ca2+ level. True/False
Insulin DECREASES blood glucose level. T/F/
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is made by the anterior pituitary in both females and males. T/F
The other organs and tissues that also have endocrine functions:
...hypothalamus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, heart, adipose tissue, and placenta, etc.
Endocrine regulation of hormones. The amount of each hormone secretion is kept within a specific range. This secretion is regulated by:
1. Signals from the nervous system (such as nerve impulses to the adrenal medullae regulate its release of epinephrine and norepinephrine)
2. Chemical change in the blood (such as calcium ion lvel in the blood regulating the secretion of PTH [parathyroid hormone]
3. Other hormones: (such as TSH from anterior pituitary stimulating the release of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland, and higher levels of serum thyroid hormone inhibits the secretion of TSH. This mechanism is called NEGATIVE FEEDBACK.)
What mechanism is described: TSH from anterior pituitary stimulating the release of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland, and higher levels of serum thyroid hormone inhibits the secretion of TSH
Negative feedback.
The hypothalamus synthesizes at least 9 hormones to control the release of hormones from the pituitary, which are called?
releasing or inhibiting hormones.
Where is the pituitary located?
In the sella turcica depression in the sphenoid bone.
The pituitary gland is composed of two lobes. What are their names?
Anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary. Both secrete different hormones.
ADH causes constriction of arteriole that enhances blood pressure, so it is also called what?
Two types of hormone are produced by the thyroid gland. The follicular cells produce ______ and the parafollicular cells produce _______
T4 and T3
T4 is also called _______ because is has ______; T3 is called _______ because it has _______
Thyroxine because it has 4 atoms of iodine.
Triiodothyronine because it has 3 atoms of iodine.
T3 active; T4 storage (speed that body converts glucose, mostly)
The effects of the thyroid hormones include ?
increases basal metabolic rate and oxygen use, cellular metabolism, and growth and development of the body.
The secretion of the thyroid hormones is regulated by?
hypothalamic releasing hormone and TSH through negative feedback and may be influenced by other factors like weather, etc.
Hypersecretion of thyroid hormones produces ______; hyposecretion produces ______
Calcitonin (CT) can decrease the level of calcium in the blood by promoting what?
the movement of blood calcium ions into bone matrix, so CT and PTH have the opposite effect to regulate the calcium ions in the blood. Secretion of CT is also regulated by blood level of calcium ions.
Each adrenal gland is composed of two regions:
1. Adrenal cortex
2. Adrenal medulla
Mineralocorticoids hormones do what?
help control the homeostasis of water, sodium and potassium ions.
What is the most active mineralocorticoid and what does it do?!
Aldosterone, which increases sodium ion resorption in renal tubules and stimulates excretion of potassium from urine. Finally, it increases sodium ion levels and water volume and decreases potassium ion level in the blood.
Glucocorticoids. What do they do?
1. promote protien breakdown into amino acids
2. promote glucose formation from amino acids or lactic acids
3. stimulate lipolysis
4. resistance to stress, cause vasoconstriction and elevate blood pressure
5. have anti-inflammatory effects, but retard tissue repair and wound healing
6. depress immune responses
Secretion controlled by ACTH
In both male and females, the adrenal cortex secretes a small amount of androgen. Stimulates growth of axillary and pubic hair and prepubertal growth spurt in both sexes.
Some congenital hyperplasia of adrenal gland causes sexual precocity in males or virilization in females.
If ACTH is up and cortisol is up, where is the issue?
adenoma pituitary
If ACTH is down but cortisol is up, where is the issue?
adrenal gland
What controls the secretion of Androgens?
Where is the main source of androgens in males?
The testes
What does androgen do for females?
Contributes to libido and are converted into estrogen that are main resource after menopause.
The adrenal medulla has two primary hormones. What are they?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine.
What do epinephrine and norepinephrine doe?
They help the body reduce stress by increasing heart rate, force of cardiac muscle contraction, blood flow to the organs, and blood pressure. Epinephrine can release the spasm of smooth muscle of bronchioles and bronchi.
A functional tumor of the adrenal medulla is called
The endocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of what?
clusters of glandular cells called pancreatic islets.
Two major hormones are produced by alpha and beta cells, respectively, and they do what?
glucagon and insulin and they are the chief regulators of blood glucose level.
Glucagon does what and how?
Increases the blood glucose level when it falls below normal by
1. accelerating the conversion in the liver of glycogen into glucose
2. promoting the conversion in the liver of amino acids and lactic acid into glucose
3. stimulating the release of glucose from liver into blood.
The secretion of glucagon is regulated by blood glucose level how?
negative feedback
Insulin does what and how?
When the blood glucose level is above normal, insulin decreases it by several ways:
1. Accelerates the diffusion of glucose from blood into most body cells, especially skeletal muscle fibers
2. accelerates the conversion of glucose into glycogen and fatty acids
3. promotes uptake of amino acids into body cells and increases protein synthesis within cells
4. slows the conversion of liver glycogen into glucose
5. slows formation of glucose by liver cells
Overdose injection of insulin or _______ causes _________
insulinoma; hyperinsulinemia
Ovaries main sex hormones
estrogen and progesterone.
Estrogen and progesterone, along with what other two hormones from the anterior pituitary, do what?
FSH and LH; regulate menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, and prepare the mammary glands for ejection.
Ovaries also produce ______ that inhibit the secretion of FSH and _____ that helps enlarge birth canal
Testes produce _____ that inhibit FSH secretion
Functional pituitary tumors
The pituitary contains 5 cell types, each of which, either singly or in combination, can give rise to pituitary adenomas.
Prolactinoma, gigantism and acromegaly, cushing's.
Non-functional pituitary tumors
These adenomas do not secrete hormones but may compress or destroy pituitary tissue and cause symptoms of hormone loss.
What percent of pituitary tumors are benign and what two categories are they separated into?
90%; functional and non-functional
2 hormones can promote growth in children. What are they?
hGH & T3/T4 (thyroid hormones)
Sex hormones have two sources. What are they?
Ovaries and Testes.
Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone. Also inhibin, inhibiting the secretion of FSH, and relaxin,
Testes produces testosterone. Also inhibin, inhibiting FSH secretion.