Glucocorticoids Case Study

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Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones which are produced predominantly in response to stress in the adrenal gland (Davis & Sandman 2010; Korgun et al. 2012). The physiological effects of glucocorticoids occur when the hormone are bind to, and mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (Erhuma 2012). It plays a wide range of vital physiological roles that are necessary for healthy implantation and pregnancy processes (Korgun et al. 2012). As glucocorticoids are critical in the regulation of the metabolic, cardiovascular, and the immune system (Drake, Tang & Nyirenda 2007; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nestorović & Milošević 2012), excess exposure to it can inhibits the growth and development of tissues and organ systems and increase the risk of developing …show more content…
The overexposure of stress experience by the foetus can either occur through the parental administration of glucocorticoids, or as the mother experience different type of stresses (Davis & Sandman 2010; Drake, Tang & Nyirenda 2007), such as loud, unexpected noise, and by living in a war zones (Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nestorović & Milošević 2012). Beside the administration of glucocorticoids from the mother, the foetal can experience foetal and placental defects (Korgun et al. 2012) by exposure to stress hormone due to the inhibition of 11β-HSD2 in the placenta, which result in overproduction of glucocorticoid (Korgun et al. 2012; Weinstock 2008). When the foetal are overexposed to glucocorticoids, the metabolic homeostasis will be disturbed. As a consequence, the foetal will have lower birth weight and restricted intrauterine growth (Drake, Tang & Nyirenda 2007; Korgun et al. 2012). Low birth weight, not only can alter the function of the HPA axis (Harris & Seckl 2011; Korgun et al. 2012), it can also lead to the development of hyperglycemia (Korgun et al. 2012; Drake, Tang & Nyirenda 2007; Harris & Seckl 2011), hypertension (Harris & Seckl 2011; Korgun et al. 2012), insulin resistance (Korgun et al. 2012; Weinstock 2008), glucose intolerance (Korgun et …show more content…
2012). The physiological effects of glucocorticoids occurs when the hormone are bind to and mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (Erhuma 2012). It plays wide range of vital physiological roles that are necessary for healthy implantation and pregnancy processes (Korgun et al. 2012). As glucocorticoids play a vital role in the regulation of the cardiovascular, metabolic, and the immune systems (Drake, Tang & Nyirenda 2007; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nestorović & Milošević 2012). The concept of foetal programming can arise when the foetus, the mother, or both experience abnormal conditions. These factors include malnutrition, and overexposure to stress hormone either by parental administration, or overproduction of glucocorticoids during the critical development stages. Thus resulting in a broad spectrum of irreversible damage to the development of tissues and organ systems, consequently increase the risk of developing cluster of symptoms, and impaired brain function (Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nestorović & Milošević

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