Adaptive Response And Response Case Study

965 Words 4 Pages
Adaptive Response/Reaction
The immune system is the human bodies defense mechanism against any pathogen; the immune system is split into two basic forms namely the innate and adaptive systems and their roles are essential in the immune system (Huether & McCance, 2012). The innate is the rapid, non-specific primary response anti any foreign body pathogen confront, while the adaptive system is the secondary response with added specific line of defense mechanism and both work collectively to eradicate foreign pathogens in the human body (Huether & McCance, 2012). The intent of this paper is to illuminate the pathophysiology and adaptive responses of three diverse diagnoses presented with a mind map related to exudative tonsillitis.

Situation
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JA, a man that labor as a maintenance engineer, and lately handled chemicals without using gloves, and approximately two weeks ago noted redness and flakiness on his hands. The information provided in this scenario illustrate an allergic contact dermatitis, spongiotic dermatitis. According to McPhee and Hammer (2014), allergic contact dermatitis is an outburst triggered by the immune-mediated response to a substrate in contact with the skin. A chemical contact to the skin triggers damage to the epidermis and emission of interleukin 1, 6, 8, and the tumor necrosis factor (Simon, Aeberhard, Erdemoglu, & Simon, 2014). These releases bring about an inflammation process that clinically exhibits as reddened, cracked, and irritated dermis (Huether & McCance, 2012). Spongiotic dermatitis is a category four reaction triggered by environmental antigens named hapten that also triggers an immune response once enclosed to a carrier protein particle of a person that resides in the skin. According to Jones and Horn (2014), The chemical allergen immersed in the skin and the Langerhans cells append with the hapten to travel to the lymph nodes that initiate the antigens to CD4 T cells fashioned to recollect the allergen. Skin sensitization ensues within five to sixteen days of the impending allergen contact, however, with an initial contact, there is absent of inflammation (Jones & Horn, 2014). With subsequent skin contact with an allergen, the memory T cells …show more content…
M who is experiencing insomnia, loss appetite and increase heart rate. Ms. M is the only caregiver for her aging mother, and this is very strenuous on her, resulting in amplified secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol and anti-inflammatory cytokines) from the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) (Huether & McCance, 2012). The stress response stimulates the sympathetic nervous system with the liberation of norepinephrine, while catecholamines are liberated into the blood stream through medulla of the adrenal gland (Huether & McCance, 2012). Furthermore, the pituitary gland triggers corticotropin-releasing hormone to liberate arrays of hormones like the antidiuretic hormones, (ADH), adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) and growth hormone. The glucocorticoid is the principle cortisol triggered by adrenal gland once fueled by ACTH, and the catecholamines can upsurge blood flow to the brain, upsurge heart rate, lessen the immunity by dwindling the natural killer cells and upsurge of glucose metabolism (Huether & McCance, 2012). The HPA acts as an adaptive system to preserve balance in a fluctuating environment (Wolkow, Ferguson, Aisbett, & Main, 2015). Glucocorticoid regulates arrays of the central nervous system tasks, such as cognition, arousal, growth and reproduction, sleep, metabolism, mood, the immune, and inflammatory reaction (Huether & McCance, 2012). Hence, an upsurge in the glucocorticoids with stress response brings about adaptive fluctuations for

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