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102 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

two, thin transparent mucous membranes, b/w eyelids and eyeball


covers scleral surface of eyeball

bulbar conjunctivae

lines eyelids and contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands

palpebral conjunctivae

central opening of iris


sensory organ for hearing and maintaining equilibrium


humidifies, filters, and warms air before entering lungs


where are the 2 placements of sinuses?

maxillary and frontal sinuses

lymphoid tissue between pillars


what are some structures within in the neck

cervical spine, sternocleidomas muscles, hyoid bone, larynx, trachea, esophagus, thyroid gland, lymph nodes, carotid arteries, juglar veins

Steps in head assessment

-Inspect head for size, shape and skin characteristics

-inspect facial structures for size symmetry, movement, skin characteristics, facial expressions

-palpate the structures of the face and jaw noting tenderness and jaw movement

-palpate the temporal arteries for pulsation, texture and tenderness

Steps in eye assessment

-Test visual acuity (snellen chart, jaeger/rosenbaum cards)

-assess visual fields for peripheral vision (confrontation test)

-assess eye movement

-6 cardinal fields of vision

-inspect external structures (eyebrow, eye lash, eye lid, etc)

-inspect conjunctivae

-inspect sclera

-inspect cornea

-inspect iris

-inspect pupils

turing in of the eye


involuntary movement of the eye


white part of the eye


colored part of the eye


What do we use to inspect pupils?


pupils equal round reactive to light and accommodation

steps in ears assessment

-assess hearing based on response to conversation

-inspect external ear for alignment & position

-inspect external auditory meatus for shape, symmetry, skin color, skin intactness

-palpate external ears and mastoid areas for tenderness/edema

-test auditory function

steps in nose assessment

-inspect nose for general appearance, symmetry and discharge

-palpate the nose for tenderness and to assess patency

-inspect internal nasal cavity for surface characteristics, lesions, erythema, discharge and foreign bodies

-palpate paranasal sinuses: frontal & maxillary sinuses

plugging the nose and assessing if still able to breathe


steps in mouth assessment

-inspect lips for color, symmetry, moisture and texture

-inspect teeth and gums for condition, color, surface, characteristics, stability, alignment

-inspect tongue for movement, symmetry, color and surface characteristics

-inspect buccal mucosa and anterior and posterior pillars for color, surface characteristics and odor

-inspect palate, uvula, posterior pharynx, and tonsils

-palpate as appropriate

steps in neck assessment

-inspect the neck (appearance, position, skin characteristics, range of motion)

-palpate neck (anatomic structures, tenderness, muscle strength)

-palpate regional lymph nodes

most common problems related to head and related structure (eyes, ears, nose, throat, neck)

headache, dizziness, difficulty with vision, hearing loss, ringing in ears, earache, nasal discharge, sore throat, oral lesions

headache assessment questions

How long have you been having headaches?

How often and how long does it last?

what makes it better/worse?

headache that occurs more than once a day and for less than 1-2 hours. May follow pattern for a couple of months and disappear for months or years

cluster headache

headache that may occur at periodic intervals and may last from a few hours to 1-3 days


headache that causes tenderness over frontal/maxillary sinuses

sinus headache

headache that tends to be located in the front or back of head

tension headache

headache that produces pain over the eye, temple, forehead, cheek

cluster headache

cause a burning or stabbing feeling behind eye

cluster headache

headache described as viselike

tension headache

headache producing throbbing pain


feeling of faintness


sensation that the environment around you is whirling around


when a person experiences dizziness or vertigo, it is important to ask them if they treat it. Why?

because they are a danger to not only themselves, but those around them, and they need to be treated to prevent harm.

When a person complains of a loss of hearing, what are 2 important questions to ask?

1. "Do you have a cold?"

Having a cold can affect hearing due to sinuses/drainage

2. Does this loss of hearing interfere with daily activities?

if they are not able to perform regular activities, it is our job to look further into it and care for them so that they are able to

hearing loss associated with aging


ringing of the ears


sensation or sound heard only by affected individual and can manifest with a variety of sounds/sensations


when a patient complains of an earache, why is it important to ask if they have noticed any drainage?

drainage can mean tympanic membrane has ruptured and therefore they probably have an infection

a thick or purulent green-yellow, malodorous discharge from nose usually means what?

bacterial infection

foul-smelling discharge, especially unilateral discharge from the nose, is associated with what?

foreign body or chronic sinusitis

profuse, watery discharge from the nose is associated (and normal) with what?


bloody discharge from the nose may be a result of what?

neoplasm, trauma, or opportunistic infection such as fungal disease

nose bleed


bleeding, lumps, thickened areas in mouth are symptoms of ____

oral cancer

enlarged lymph nodes may be associated with ___

cancer or infection

recurrent headaches are a symptom of ___

chronic primary headache disorder

clinical findings:

-starts with aura from vasospasm of intracranial arteries; throbbing unilateral distribution of pain

-may be accompanied by depression, restlessness, irritability, photophobia, nausea, or vomiting

-may last up to 72 hours

migraine headache

clinical findings:

-most painful of primary headaches

-intense episodes of excruciating unilateral pain

-lasts up to 30 min-1 hr and may repeat daily for weeks with some remissions or 6-12 weeks with remissions for 1+ years

-pain is burning, drilling, stabbing behind one eye

-may be accompanies with unilateral ptosis, ipsilateral lacrimation, nasal stuffiness and drainage

cluster headache

clinical findings:

-usually bilateral; may be diffuse or confined to frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital area

-onset may be gradual and last for several days

-may be accompanied by contraction of skeletal muscles of face, jaw, neck

-patients frequently describe as feeling of tight band around their heads

tension headache

clinical findings:

-dull, generalized head pain

-accompanying symptoms may be lack of ability to concentrate, giddiness or dizziness

post-traumatic headache

abnormal accumulation of CSF


clinical findings:

-Infant: gradual increase in intracranial pressure leads to an actual enlargement of head, fontanels may bulge and scalp veins dilate

-Adult: signs of increased intracranial pressure (decreased mental status, headache) are noted because skull is unable to expand


nodule of meibomian gland in eyelid, may be tender if infected


acute infection originating in sebaceous gland of eyelid (sty)


clinical findings:

-firm, nontender nodule observed in eyelid


inflammation of palpebral or bulbar conjunctiva caused by local infection of bacteria or virus, or by allergic rxn, systemic infection or chem irritation


clinical findings:

-eye appears red, with thick, sticky discharge on eyelids in monrings

conjunctivitis (pink eye)

disruption of corneal epithelium and stroma

corneal abrasion / ulcer

clinical findings:

-intense pain, has foreign body sensation and reports photophobia; tearing & redness are observed

corneal abrasion

abnormal ocular alignment as visual axes do not meet at desired point


clinical findings:

1. Esotropia: inward-turning eye; most common type in infants

2. Exotropia: outward-turning of eye


opacity of crystalline lens from denaturation of lens protein caused by aging and may be congenital or caused by trauma


clinical findings:

-cloudy/blurred vision; glare from headlights, lamps, sunlight; diplopia

-may also report poor night vision and frequent changes in prescriptions for glasses

-cloudy lens can be observed on inspection

-red reflex is absent because light cannot penetrate opacity of lens


visual alteration with diabetes mellitus caused by changes in retinal capillaries; leading cause of blindness

diabetic retinopathy

clinical findings:

-patients report decrease in vision

-in background, microaneurysms and hemorrhages are seen

-exudates may also be seen around macula

-patients with proliferative (this) report a sensation of "curtain over eye"

-on examination, a network of new blood vessels is seen along retinal surface

diabetic retinopathy

group of diseases that increases intraocular pressure and damages optic nerve, leading to blindness


what are 2 types of glaucoma?

1. open-angle

2. closed-angle

clinical findings:

-no specific symptoms of open-angle

-most reliable indicator is intraocular pressure measurement

-patients with closed-angle complain of sharp eye pain and seeing halo around lights


clinical findings:

-patient feels sense of fullness in ear and experiences decreased hearing

-may hear movement of insect and often experience extreme pain/fever

-inspection of auditory canal reveals something

foreign body in ear

infection of middle ear

AOM (acute otitis media)

clinical findings:

-ear pain

-fever, vomiting in infants

-decreased hearing in older children/adults

-tympanic membrane appears inflamed, red and bulging/immobile in early stage

-discoloration (white or yellow drainage) and opacification to the TM in later stages

-purulent drainage from ear canal with sudden relief of pain suggests perforation

otitis media

ear pain


inflammation of middle ear space, resulting in accumulation of serous fluid in middle ear

otitis media with effusion (OME)

clinical findings:

-common symptoms= clogged sensation in ear, problems with hearing and balance

-some report clicking/popping in ear

-NO fever or ear pain

-TM often retracted, yellow/gray in color with limited mobility

OME (otitis media w/ effusion)

caused by interference of air conduction to middle ear; may result from blockage of external auditory canal, problems with TM, or problems w/in middle ear

conductive hearing loss

clinical findings:

-decreased ability to hear/report of muffled sounds

-obstructions w/in auditory canal or problems with TM may be visible with otoscopic examination

-problems w/in middle ear may not be visible

conductive hearing loss

caused by structural changes, disorders of inner ear, or problems with auditory nerve

sensorineural hearing loss

caused by atrophy and deterioration of cells in cochlea or atrophy, degeneration and stiffening of cochlear motion


clinical findings:

-usually manifests as gradual and progressive bilateral deafness with a loss of high-pitched tones

-patients have difficulty filtering background noise, making listening difficult

sensorineural hearing loss

clinical findings:

-bleeding due to high vascularity; most occur anterior of septum

-bleeds from posterior septum may also occur and tend to be more severe


inflammation of nasal mucosa

allergic rhinitis

clinical findings:

-exposure to allergen causes sneezing, nasal congestion and nasal drainage, and may include itchy eyes, cough and fatigue

-turbinates are often enlarged and may appear pale or darker red

allergic rhinitis

infection as a result of pooling secretions within sinuses

acute sinusitis

clinical findings:

-most common symptom= throbbing pain in affect sinus

-fever, thick purulent discharge and edematous, erythematous nasal mucosa

-transillumination shows absence of red glow in affected sinus

acute sinusitis

a highly contagious, viral infection spread by direct contact

Herpes Simplex Type 1 (cold sore)

clinical findings:

-typically prodromal burning, tingling or pain sensation before outbreak of lesions

- lesions appear on lip and skin junction as groups with an erythematous base

-lesions progress from vesicles to pustules and finally to crusts

Herpes Simplex Type 1 (cold sore)

inflammation of gingivae (gums)


clinical findings:

-hyperplasia of gums, erythema and bleeding with manipulation are most common signs

-edema deepens crevice b/w gingivae and teeth, allowing for pockets where food particles collect, causing further inflammation

-periodontitis occurs when inflammatory process causes erosion of gum tissue and loosening teeth


infection of tonsils from common bacterial pathogens


clinical findings:

-classic presentation includes sore throat, pain with swallowing, fever, chills, tender cervical lymph nodes

-ear pain

-on inspection, tonsils appear enlarged and red and may be covered with white/yellow exudates


pain with swallowing


oral infection caused by Candida albicans in those chronically debilitated or immunosuppressed, or as a result of antibiotic therapy

candidiasis (thrush)

clinical findings:

-appears as soft, white plaques on tongue, buccal mucosa, or posterior pharynx

-if membrane is peeled off, a raw, bleeding, erythematous, eroded, or ulcerated surface results

candidiasis (thrush)

common oral lesion with unknown etiology

aphthous ulcer (canker sore)

clinical findings:

-lesions are very painful and appear on buccal mucosa, lips, tongue, or palate as round or oval ulcerative lesions with a yellow-white center and an erythematous halo

-may last up to 2 weeks

aphthous ulcer (canker sore)

condition associated w/ excessive production & secretion of thyroid hormone. Grave's disease is most common cause.


clinical findings:

-most body systems affected

-S&S reflect increased metabolism and may include enlargement of thyroid gland and exophthalmos


result of decreased production of thyroid hormone


clinical findings:

-overall decreased metabolism, patient is "slow in motion" with depressed affect

-goiter may be seen


group of disorders with malignant neoplasms of lymph tissue


clinical findings:

-malignancy causes lymph nodes to be large, discrete, nontender and firm to rubbery

-enlarged nodes usually unilateral and localized

-hodgkin's disease is painless, progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissues, usually first evident by cervical lymph nodes, splenomegaly, and atypical macrophages