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45 Cards in this Set

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Lyman Beecher
Celebrated minister of the Republic, denounced infidelity, drinking, dancing, and dueling, wanted to bring the kingdom of Christ to the nation and the world, believed the glorious millennium could start in the United States, converted during the Second Great Awakening, raised a family of 11 children, member of benevolent associations
benevolent associations
Groups of Protestant ministers that supported religious reforms and missionary organizations and distributed Bibles, promoted Sunday schools and ministered to the poor
Charles Finney
Converted in 1821, gave up practicing law to become an itinerant minister, hosted spectacular revivals along the Erie Canal, held “protracted meetings” nightly to create excitement, heightened the crowds’ emotions by naming sinners and encouraging women to testify in public, rejected predestination and promoted free will, preached theology of perfectionism, optimistic about salvation for all
African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME)
Had around 20000 members by 1860, African Americans could not worship in white churches without discrimination, so they created black Methodist and Baptist churches in northern and southern cities, churches were suppressed in the south by white communities, but they flourished in the north
Largest Protestant denomination in both the north and south, founded on principles on John and Charles Wesley, active concern for social welfare and public morals
A member of an evangelical Protestant church of congregational polity, following the reformed tradition in worship, and believing in individual freedom, in the separation of church and state, and in baptism of voluntary, conscious believers
Emphasized the ability of everyone to bring his or her own salvation, agreed with the American belief in individualism, preached to a large audience with no social distinctions, reinforced democracy and equality
cult of domesticity
Women’s world was the home, they gave love, comfort, and spread moral values to their husbands and children, separation of the household from the workplace, home was idealized as a haven from the competitive work world, women were at the center of the household
separate spheres
Man’s sphere of influence was the world of factories, offices, and fields, woman’s sphere of influence was in the household
Catherine Beecher
Lyman Beecher’s daughter, advocate of “republican motherhood” and giving women a better education so that they could become schoolteachers and instill moral values in children, argued that women were the moral guardians of the nation and that managing the household was a crucial responsibility, wrote several books on efficient home management
Often attacked by evangelical ministers, a Christian doctrine that stresses individual freedom, monotheism, and rejects the Trinity, criticized by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Unitarian minister, spoke to the students of Harvard Divinity School in July 1838, argued that the true church was about to fall, partly because of the lifeless preachers who cannot truly tell whether or not he is an infinite Soul, nature was alive and vibrant, the speech reflected the intellectual movement referred to as Romanticism
Began in Europe as a counter to the Enlightenment (which placed reason at the center of human achievement), emphasized the importance of emotion and intuition, individual had unlimited potential if he or she was not restrained by institutions, reinforced the emotionalism of the religious revivals by emphasizing feelings and convictions, strongest among intellectuals from the Transcendental movement
Emerged in the mid-1830s among unhappy Unitarian clergy and other Boston intellectuals, emphasized feelings over reason and a spiritual connection with nature, wanted to rise above reason and a materialistic world, believed every human being contained some divinity (glorified the individual), optimistic reform
Margaret Fuller
Discontented Boston intellectual who was attracted to the “Transcendentalist Club”, American writer and critic who edited the Transcendentalist periodical Dial, pioneering literary critic for the New York Tribune, wrote the feminist Woman in the Nineteenth Century
James Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstalking Tales
Series of five novels written from 1823 to 1841, discussed the clash between nature and civilization, admired Natty Bumppo, an independent frontiersman that represented the purity of the wilderness, also viewed the frontier culture as a threat to civilization
Henry David Thoreau’s Walden; On Civil Disobedience
Lived by himself in a self-constructed cabin on the edge of Walden pond for sixteen months to show the benefits of being self-reliant, denounced American competition for material goods and wealth, argued that one could only find independence, liberty, equality, and happiness in nature (antisocial extreme)
Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass
Embraced the infinite variety of American society, journalist and laborer in New York, inspired by the manners, speech, dress, and friendships of the common people, created a new form of poetry that was not concerned with meter or rhyme and was full of imagery and sexual references, emphasized emotions, nature, and the individual
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter
Did not share the Transcendentalists’ optimism, argued that the past had the power to shaper future generations, wrote about the suffering of a woman who had an illegitimate child and the hypocritical Puritans who tormented her, discussed the consequences of pride, selfishness, envy, and guilt
Herman Melville’s Moby Dick
Also did not share the optimism of the Transcendentalists, portrayed Captain Ahab (main character in his novel, drives the crew on a whaling ship in pursuit of a great white whale) as an American symbol of the ruthless businessman who ruins nature’s resources in pursuit of success
Edgar Allan Poe’s Tales & Poems*
Poe found happiness in writing poetry, but also raised the short-story to an art-form and was one of the first to write detective stories, dark and gothic stories of mystery and imagination greatly influenced the modern thriller
Age of reform 1820-1850
Continual quest for perfection after camp meetings, some groups wanted radical democratic changes that would remake society at large, while others wanted conservative reforms for individual sinners
Brook Farm
Transcendentalist community near Boston organized by George Ripley (friend of Emerson), idealized as a utopian community where people could live wholesome and simple lives without the pressure of competitive institutions, demonstrate the possibilities of perfection
Shakers/ Ann Lee
Shakers wanted to democratically remake society, one of the longest utopian experiments, Ann Lee was the daughter of an English blacksmith who led a group of Shakers to America in 1774, she became convinced that her life would exemplify the female side of the divinity, later referred to as Mother Ann, Shakers practiced celibacy and separation of the sexes because they believed the end of the world was near and so there was no reason to enlarge the human race
Oneida Community/ John Humphrey Noyes
Noyes argued that he had achieved the blessed state of perfection and created a community based on his religious ideals in Oneida, New York after 1848, preached “complex marriage” in which members of the community could have sexual relations with each other, but the community first had to approve, selected combinations of parents to produce morally correct children, community fell in 1879
Mormons/Church of the Latter Day Saints
Founded by Joseph Smith in New York, claimed that he had discovered golden tablets on which was written the Book of Mormon and that it was a commission from God to establish the true church, preached that salvation was available to everyone, and emphasized hard work, thrift, self-control, and material success, created a theocracy uniting church and state, reestablished biblical priesthoods and titles, and adopted temple rituals, bitterly persecuted, different from traditional Christianity because of baptism for the dead, eternal marriage, and polygamy
Joseph Smith
Founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), attempted to gather the saints in a “city of Zion” to prepare for Christ’s return, believed Christ would return to rule the earth and hoped for a millennial kingdom, murdered by an anti-Mormon mob
New Harmony/ Robert Owen
Scottish industrialist who founded the community of New Harmony in Indiana, believed that it was possible to change human character by changing a person’s surroundings, when the community broke up, it showed that the United States was not fit for socialistic experiments or collectivist experiments because wages were too high and land was too cheap, individualism was too strong for everyone to commit to change
temperance movement
Alcohol consumption greatly increased after the Revolution and brought about broken families, abused and neglected wives and children, sickness, disability, poverty, and crime, temperance movement tried to eliminate these problems by decreasing the amount of drinking, led by clergy and initially did not oppose moderate drinking, but the American Temperance Society (founded in 1826) tried to eliminate it completely
Horace Mann
Led Massachusetts to adopt a minimum-length school year, provided a training program for teachers, expanded the curriculum to include history, geography, and other applied skills, Massachusetts (in 1800) was the only state that required free public schools supported by community funds
Dorothea Dix
Boston schoolteacher, advocated state-supported asylums for the mentally ill, gained attention for the issue by describing the horrible treatment such as being chained, kept in cages, and being beaten, help bring about mental institutions in 28 states by 1860
Born on January 1, 1831 in the first issue of the Liberator, repudiated gradual emancipation over immediate, claimed that colonization was racist, believed in racial equality, renounced slavery as a sin
William Lloyd Garrison
Symbol of the transition from moderate to militant antislavery movement, very religious, endorsed the colonization movement (advocated sending blacks to Africa), convicted of libel and imprisoned shortly after moving to Baltimore, published the abolitionist journal the Liberator, attracted the most attention of any abolitionist
Call for the immediate emancipation of slaves, advocated by Garrison
American Antislavery Society
Founded by Garrison, Tappan, and Weld in 1833, national organization, around 200000 northerners were members of some abolitionist society in the years leading up to the Civil War, abolition was centered in the east, especially in New England
Frederick Douglass
Freed African American, escaped from slavery in Maryland and became a critic of it, started his own newspaper in Rochester after breaking from Garrison (whom he had been a follower of), most prominent leader and supporter of the abolitionist movement
David Walker’s Appeal
Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World was written in 1829, unlike most other abolitionists who urged peaceful action, Walker advocated violence to end bondage of slaves
Harriet Tubman
Escaped slave who returned to the South and helped 200 slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad (network of antislavery sympathizers who hid fugitives and transported them to freedom in the North)
Elijah Lovejoy
An abolitionist who was murdered in 1837 in Alton, Illinois when he tried to protect his printing press from an angry crowd of anti-abolitionists, mobs lead by prominent leaders of the community
Grimke sisters
Abolitionists who were criticized for speaking to male and female audiences, and so they (Sarah and Angelina), so the began fight for women’s rights as well, argued that women had the same rights as men in Letters on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes (1838)
Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments 1848
Conference organized by Stanton and Mott in New York, around one hundred people came, issued a Declaration of Sentiments (mimicked the Declaration of Independence) that stated that all men and women were created equal, called for educational and professional opportunities for women, control of their property, recognition of legal equality, the only resolution that was not unanimously passed was one demanding the right to vote, established the arguments that would be used later in the women’s rights movement
abolitionist schism of 1840
At a meeting of the American Anti-Slavery Society, delegates argued over whether or not women could hold office in the organization, lessened the influence of abolitionism as a benevolent reform movement, increased moral concern about slavery but remained a minority
Maine Law 1851
Authorized the search and seizure of private property and provided stiff penalties for selling liquor, first major triumph for the temperance movement, caused other states to enact similar laws (although most of them were not passed by the courts)
gag rule 1836
Tabled without consideration any petition that dealt with slavery, (southern representatives persuaded the House to adopt the rule by claiming that Congress had no power over the institution of slavery), abolitionists convinced House to repeal the rule in 1844
Liberty Party 1840
Founded by political abolitionists outside of Garrison’s extreme circle because they believed an antislavery party would provide an effective means for attacking slavery, nominated James Birney (lost), started the antislavery political movement