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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Revolution of 1800
-Jefferson’s presidential Election. The transfer of power was peaceful, most transfers did were not peaceful. Republican party taking party from the federalists, made it even more amazing that the transfer was peaceful. He took the country on a more democratic path.
Jeffersonian agrarianism
-thought agriculture was a morally superior way of life. Thought it helped produce the honesty, independence and virtue that a republic needed. Thought as long as most Americans were agrarian then the republic would succeed. Wanted to preserve small household manufacturing, and only have commerce to sell their agricultural surplus.
Jefferson’s economic program
-to pay off national debt he cut spending, reduced the size of govt. (less people to pay), got rid of taxes that the Federalists put into place (including the one on whiskey) and got rid of tax collectors. Land sales and tariff duties would bring in money to run the govt. Cut military budget in half. Paid debts in order to keep the nation’s credit.
John Marshall
-chief justice, involved in the Marbury vs. Madison case. Said that the Courts greatest power was its ability to interpret what the constitution said.
Marbury v. Madison 1803
William Marbury was appointed by Adams, but when James Madison became the secretary of state for Jefferson he found a bunch of undelivered commissions, one of them was Marbury’s. He failed to deliver them because him and Jefferson wanted to appoint republicans to these offices. Marbury sued, and the case went straight to supreme court.
judicial review
The supreme court had the power to interpret the meaning of the constitution. The supreme court had to expound and interpret the constitution and the laws when one statute conflicted with another, or when a law violated the framework of the constitution. Had the ability to say that an amendment, or part of an amendment was unconstitutional if a case came to them that involved it.
Empire of/for liberty
-Jefferson saw the west as a way to keep the values of an agrarian republic. Thought rural people would head to cities to find work unless there was cheap land to the west. There was enough land to make the U.S an empire of liberty.
Louisiana Purchase 1803
-Am. thought that since the Sp. Colonial empire was being destroyed they would gain that land. However Sp. Secretly ceded the land to France. Napoleon needed money, so he agreed to sell Louisiana to the U.S. Livingston and Monroe did not have permission to spend as much as Napoleon wanted, but they bout it and doubled the countries size.
Lewis & Clark Expedition 1803-05
-sent by congress with a party to explore from the Missouri river to the Pacific. Were supposed to look for an easy land route to the Pacific, and engage in diplomacy with the Indians. Strengthened Am. claim to Oregon. Found many passes through the Rockies, and made a surprisingly accurate map.
Second Great Awakening 1800-1830
-religious revival. Congregationalists, Presbyterians and Baptists all participated. Worshiped in camp meetings (outside services, people would bring tents). Helped spread Christianity to African Americans
Tecumseh & The Prophet 1808-1814
The prophet created a religious revival that would revitalize the Indian culture by getting rid of all connections with the whites. Urged Indians to return to their old ways.
Barbary Pirates 1801-1805
-they preyed on American ships. Were from North African states that were on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Would plunder ships, taking the goods and the crew as slaves. Were Muslim. Some countries paid them so that they would not attack their ships, Americans wouldn’t.
British impressments & US neutrality
-Br. and France went to war. At first the war helped Am. economically, but then Br. started impressing Am sailors and ships again. Both Br. and France took a lot of Am. ships. Jefferson didn’t want to declare war, stayed neutral.
Jefferson’s Embargo 1807-09
-Jefferson started a program of peaceable coercion where American ships were not allowed to trade with foreign ports, and all Am. exports were stopped. Thought that Am. exports were important enough to Br. and France, that w/out them they would stop attacking neutral Am. to get the exports back. He was wrong, it hurt Am economy a lot, and people were smuggling so he gave up trying to enforce it.
War Hawks
James Madison became president, but he lacked the force of leadership and the inner strength to make others do what he wanted. B/c of this leadership went to a new generation in Congress (republican). They were more nationalistic, and were willing to go to war (hence : War Hawks). Wanted to expand, and better the economy. became driving force of Republican party.
President James Madison 1808-1816
Had a lot of experience, except he lacked leadership and other qualities that were essential for being president.
War of 1812
-Br. were seizing a lot of Am. ships, and still impressing Am. sailors. Madison declared war against them. Federalists were against war, thought it would ruin commerce. Coastal trading cities were also against war. Wanted to get land from Spain who was Br. ally. Thought Br. had never actually accepted the Am. Revolution.
Aaron Burr Conspiracy & Trial 1804-07*
-Burr killed Hamilton in a duel, was convicted of treason and murder. Was vice president, and after his term end he made a conspiracy with a friend, no one knows exactly what it was
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair*
-The Br. captured the USS Philadelphia. Am. closed their waters to Br. ships, and demanded payment for damages. Increased tension between Am. and Br. helped lead to war of 1812.
Andrew Jackson’s Indian Wars
-defeated the Creeks, and made a peace treaty where the Creeks ceded 22 million acres of land.
Battle of New Orleans 1815
-one of the 3 Br. targets was New Orleans. Even though Am soldiers were outnumbered and not ready they won. It let Am.’s forget the failures of the war, and to be proud because once again Am. humbled the world’s greatest military power.
Hartford Convention 1814
New England Federalists met in Hartford (were not happy about the war), they proposed amendments that showed their displeasure with the govt.’s economic policies, and their resentment of the South’s national political power. But the national pride from the winning of New Orleans undercut this convention.
Treaty of Ghent 1814
-peace treaty, that did little. All major issues between Am. and Br were ignored or put off till another day. They both just wanted to end the war.
Missouri Compromise 1820
-Missouri was admitted into the U.S as a slave state and Maine became a free state. Slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase north of a certain line (south border of Missouri). Ended the Missouri crisis.
Transcontinental Treaty 1819
-set the borders between Am. and Spanish territory all the way to the Pacific. Spain ceded Florida and its claims to the Pacific Northwest
Monroe Doctrine 1823
-said that U.S would not intervene in European affairs, or in already established European colonies in the western Hemisphere. And that Am. was no longer to be thought of as subjects for future colonization by European powers. Shows U.S.’s determination not to act as a satellite of Britain.
President James Monroe 1816-1824
-wanted to accept Br. proposal that neither Br. nor Am would expand into Latin am. Adams urged him not to, didn’t in the end.
Era of Good Feelings 1817-1820*
-after war of 1812, there was a postwar harmony